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《公民及政治权利国际公约》中英文版本对照

时间:2012-03-29      来源:本站      作者:admin      点击:
本文将 《公民及政治权利国际公约》(ICCPR)作准中文本、英文本和通用中文本逐条对照列出,便于研究、使用。

【说  明】

本文将《公民及政治权利国际公约》(International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights/ICCPR)作准中文本、英文本和通用中文本逐条对照列出,便于研究、使用。

 

作准中、英文本录自联合国大会1966年12月16日第2200A(XXI)号决议。原始作准中文本作“公民及政治权利国际盟约”;2002年1月联合国应中国政府建议,将“盟约”一词改为“公约”。“通用中文本”出现于新中国恢复在联合国合法席位之后,来源不明,但目前在国内外普遍使用(例如中国人权研究会联合国网站联合国“国际文件汇编”等)。两份中文本存在较大区别。

 

有关不同版本所致法律问题,可参见孙世彦(2007)文中的探讨。 

 

 

>> PDF版对照表

 


作准中文本


作准英文本

 


通用中文本

 
公民及政治权利国际公约

 

 
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

 


公民权利和政治权利国际公约

 

 

  

 

 

Preamble

 

 

  

 

本公约缔约国,

鉴于依据联合国宪章揭示之原则,人类一家,对于人人天赋尊严及其平等而且不可割让权利之确认,实系世界自由正义与和平之基础,

确认此种权利源于天赋人格尊严,

确认依据世界人权宣言之昭示,唯有创造环境,使人人除享有经济社会文化权利而外,并得享受公民及政治权利,始克实现自由人类享受公民及政治自由无所恐惧不虞匮乏之理想,

鉴于联合国宪章之规定,各国负有义务,必须促进人权及自由之普遍尊重及遵守,

明认个人对他人及对其隶属之社会,负有义务,故职责所在,必须力求本公约所确认各种权利之促进及遵守,

爰议定条款如下:

The States Parties to the present Covenant,

Considering that, in accordance with the principles proclaimed in the Charter of the United Nations, recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,

Recognizing that these rights derive from the inherent dignity of the human person,

Recognizing that, in accordance with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the ideal of free human beings enjoying civil and political freedom and freedom from fear and want can only be achieved if conditions are created whereby everyone may enjoy his civil and political rights, as well as his economic, social and cultural rights,

Considering the obligation of States under the Charter of the United Nations to promote universal respect for, and observance of, human rights and freedoms,

Realizing that the individual, having duties to other individuals and to the community to which he belongs, is under a responsibility to strive for the promotion and observance of the rights recognized in the present Covenant,

Agree upon the following articles:  

本公约缔约各国,

考虑到,按照联合国宪章所宣布的原则,对人类家庭所有成员的固有尊严及其平等的和不移的权利的承认,乃是世界自由、正义与和平的基础,

确认这些权利是源于人身的固有尊严,

确认,按照世界人权宣言,只有在创造了使人人可以享有其公民和政治权利,正如享有其经济、社会、文化权利一样的条件的情况下,才能实现自由人类享有公民及政治自由和免于恐惧和匮乏的自由的理想,

考虑到各国根据联合国宪章负有义务促进对人的权利和自由的普遍尊重和遵行,

认识到个人对其他个人和对他所属的社会负有义务,应为促进和遵行本公约所承认的权利而努力,

兹同意下述各条:  

第  编  

PART I  

第一部分  

第一条

一、所有民族均享有自决权,根据此种权利,自由决定其政治地位并自由从事其经济、社会与文化之发展。

二、所有民族得为本身之目的,自由处置其天然财富及资源,但不得妨害因基于互惠原则之国际经济合作及因国际法而生之任何义务。无论在何种情形下,民族之生计,不容剥夺。

三、本公约缔约国、包括负责管理非自治及托管领土之国家在内,均应遵照联合国宪章规定,促进自决权之实现,并尊重此种权利。

Article 1

1. All peoples have the right of self-determination. By virtue of that right they freely determine their political status and freely pursue their economic, social and cultural development.

2. All peoples may, for their own ends, freely dispose of their natural wealth and resources without prejudice to any obligations arising out of international economic co-operation, based upon the principle of mutual benefit, and international law. In no case may a people be deprived of its own means of subsistence.

3. The States Parties to the present Covenant, including those having responsibility for the administration of Non-Self-Governing and Trust Territories, shall promote the realization of the right of self-determination, and shall respect that right, in conformity with the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations.  

第一条

一、所有人民都有自决权。他们凭这种权利自由决定他们的政治地位,并自由谋求他们的经济、社会和文化的发展。

二、所有人民得为他们自己的目的自由处置他们的天然财富和资源,而不损害根据基于互利原则的国际经济合作和国际法而产生的任何义务。在任何情况下不得剥夺一个人民自己的生存手段。

三、本公约缔约各国,包括那些负责管理非自治领土和托管领土的国家,应在符合联合国宪章规定的条件下,促进自决权的实现,并尊重这种权利。  

第  编  

PART II  

第二部分  

第二条

一、本公约缔约国承允尊重并确保所有境内受其管辖之人;无分种族、肤色、性别、语言、宗教、政见或其他主张、民族本源或社会阶级、财产、出生或其他身分等等,一律享受本公约所确认之权利。

二、本公约缔约国承允遇现行立法或其他措施尚无规定时,各依本国宪法程序,并遵照本公约规定,采取必要步骤,制定必要之立法或其他措施,以实现本公约所确认之权利。

三、本公约缔约国承允:

(子)确保任何人所享本公约确认之权利或自由如遭受侵害,均获有效之救济,公务员执行职务所犯之侵权行为,亦不例外;

(丑)确保上项救济声请人之救济权利,由主管司法、行政或立法当局裁决,或由该国法律制度规定之其他主管当局裁定,并推广司法救济之机会;

(寅)确保上项救济一经核准,主管当局概予执行。  

Article 2

1. Each State Party to the present Covenant undertakes to respect and to ensure to all individuals within its territory and subject to its jurisdiction the rights recognized in the present Covenant, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.

2. Where not already provided for by existing legislative or other measures, each State Party to the present Covenant undertakes to take the necessary steps, in accordance with its constitutional processes and with the provisions of the present Covenant, to adopt such laws or other measures as may be necessary to give effect to the rights recognized in the present Covenant.

3. Each State Party to the present Covenant undertakes:

(a) To ensure that any person whose rights or freedoms as herein recognized are violated shall have an effective remedy, notwithstanding that the violation has been committed by persons acting in an official capacity;

(b) To ensure that any person claiming such a remedy shall have his right thereto determined by competent judicial, administrative or legislative authorities, or by any other competent authority provided for by the legal system of the State, and to develop the possibilities of judicial remedy;

(c) To ensure that the competent authorities shall enforce such remedies when granted.  

第二条

一、本公约每一缔约国承担尊重和保证在其领土内和受其管辖的一切个人享有本公约所承认的权利,不分种族、肤色、性别、语言、宗教、政治或其他见解、国籍或社会出身作准本作“民族本源或社会阶级”】、财产、出生或其他身分等任何区别。

二、凡未经现行立法或其他措施予以规定者,本公约每一缔约国承担按照其宪法程序和本公约的规定采取必要的步骤,以采纳为实施本公约所承认的权利所需的立法或其他措施。

三、本公约每一缔约国承担:

(甲)保证任何一个被侵犯了本公约所承认的权利或自由的人,能得到有效的补救,尽管此种侵犯是以官方资格行事的人所为;

(乙)保证任何要求此种补救的人能由合格的司法、行政或立法当局或由国家法律制度规定的任何其他合格当局断定其在这方面的权利;并发展司法补救的可能性;

(丙)保证合格当局在准予此等补救时,确能付诸实施。

第三条

本公约缔约国承允确保本公约所载一切公民及政治权利之享受,男女权利,一律平等。  

Article 3

The States Parties to the present Covenant undertake to ensure the equal right of men and women to the enjoyment of all civil and political rights set forth in the present Covenant.  

第三条

本公约缔约各国承担保证男子和妇女在享有本公约所载一切公民和政治权利方面有平等的权利。  

第四条

一、如经当局正式宣布紧急状态,危及国本,本公约缔约国得在此种危急情势绝对必要之限度内,采取措施,减免履行其依本公约所负之义务,但此种措施不得只触其依国际法所负之其他义务,亦不得引起纯粹以种族、肤色、性别、语言、宗教或社会阶级为根据之歧视。

二、第六条、第七条、第八条(第一项及第二项)、第十一条、第十五条、第十六条及第十八条之规定,不得依本条规定减免履行。

三、本公约缔约国行使其减免履行义务之权利者,应立即将其减免履行之条款,及减免履行之理由,经由联合国秘书长转知本公约其他缔约国。其终止减免履行之日期,亦应另行移文秘书长转知。  

Article 4 1. In time of public emergency which threatens the life of the nation and the existence of which is officially proclaimed, the States Parties to the present Covenant may take measures derogating from their obligations under the present Covenant to the extent strictly required by the exigencies of the situation, provided that such measures are not inconsistent with their other obligations under international law and do not involve discrimination solely on the ground of race, colour, sex, language, religion or social origin.

2. No derogation from articles 6, 7, 8 (paragraphs I and 2), 11, 15, 16 and 18 may be made under this provision.

3. Any State Party to the present Covenant availing itself of the right of derogation shall immediately inform the other States Parties to the present Covenant, through the intermediary of the Secretary-General of the United Nations, of the provisions from which it has derogated and of the reasons by which it was actuated. A further communication shall be made, through the same intermediary, on the date on which it terminates such derogation.  

第四条

一、在社会紧急状态威胁到国家的生命并经正式宣布时,本公约缔约国得采取措施克减其在本公约下所承担的义务,但克减的程度以紧急情势所严格需要者为限,此等措施并不得与它根据国际法所负有的其他义务相矛盾,且不得包含纯粹基于种族、肤色、性别、语言、宗教或社会出身的理由的歧视。

二、不得根据本规定而克减第六条、第七条、第八条(第一款和第二款)、第十一条、第十五条、第十六条和第十八条。

三、任何援用克减权的本公约缔约国应立即经由联合国秘书长将它已克减的各项规定、实行克减的理由和终止这种克减的日期通知本公约的其他缔约国家【作准本另起一句作“其终止减免履行之日期,亦应另行移文秘书长转知”】。  

第五条

一、本公约条文不得解释为国家团体或个人有权从事活动或实行行为,破坏本公约确认之任何一种权利与自由,或限制此种权利与自由逾越本公约规定之程度。

二、本公约缔约国内依法律公约条例或习俗而承认或存在之任何基本人权,不得借口本公约未予确认或确认之范围较狭,而加以限制或减免义务。  

Article 5

1. Nothing in the present Covenant may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms recognized herein or at their limitation to a greater extent than is provided for in the present Covenant.

2. There shall be no restriction upon or derogation from any of the fundamental human rights recognized or existing in any State Party to the present Covenant pursuant to law, conventions, regulations or custom on the pretext that the present Covenant does not recognize such rights or that it recognizes them to a lesser extent. 

第五条

一、本公约中任何部分不得解释为隐示任何国家、团体或个人有权利从事于任何旨在破坏本公约所承认的任何权利和自由或对它们加以较本公约所规定的范围更广的限制的活动或行为。

二、对于本公约的任何缔约国中依据法律、惯例【作准本作“公约”】、条例或习惯而被承认或存在的任何基本人权,不得借口本公约未予承认或只在较小范围上予以承认而加以限制或克减。  

第  编  

PART III  

第三部分  

第六条

一、人人皆有天赋之生存权。此种权利应受法律保障。任何人之生命不得无理剥夺。

二、凡未废除死刑之国家,非犯情节最重大之罪,且依照犯罪时有效并与本公约规定及防止及惩治残害人群罪公约不抵触之法律,不得科处死刑。死刑非依管辖法院终局判决,不得执行。

三、生命之剥夺构成残害人群罪时,本公约缔约国公认本条不得认为授权任何缔约国以任何方式减免其依防止及惩治残害人群罪公约规定所负之任何义务。

四、受死刑宣告者,有请求特赦或减刑之权。一切判处死刑之案件均得邀大赦、特赦或减刑。

五、未满十八岁之人犯罪,不得判处死刑,怀胎妇女被判死刑,不得执行其刑。

六、本公约缔约国不得援引本条,而延缓或阻止死刑之废除。  

Article 6

1. Every human being has the inherent right to life. This right shall be protected by law. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his life.

2. In countries which have not abolished the death penalty, sentence of death may be imposed only for the most serious crimes in accordance with the law in force at the time of the commission of the crime and not contrary to the provisions of the present Covenant and to the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. This penalty can only be carried out pursuant to a final judgement rendered by a competent court.

3. When deprivation of life constitutes the crime of genocide, it is understood that nothing in this article shall authorize any State Party to the present Covenant to derogate in any way from any obligation assumed under the provisions of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide.

4. Anyone sentenced to death shall have the right to seek pardon or commutation of the sentence. Amnesty, pardon or commutation of the sentence of death may be granted in all cases.

5. Sentence of death shall not be imposed for crimes committed by persons below eighteen years of age and shall not be carried out on pregnant women.

6. Nothing in this article shall be invoked to delay or to prevent the abolition of capital punishment by any State Party to the present Covenant.  

第六条

一、人人有固有的生命权。这个权利应受法律保护。不得任意剥夺任何人的生命。

二、在未废除死刑的国家,判处死刑只能是作为对最严重的罪行的惩罚,判处应按照犯罪时有效并且不违反本公约规定和防止及惩治灭绝种族罪公约的法律。这种刑罚,非经合格法庭最后判决,不得执行。

三、兹了解:在剥夺生命构成灭种罪时,本条中任何部分并不准许本公约的任何缔约国以任何方式克减它在防止及惩治灭绝种族罪公约的规定下所承担的任何义务。

四、任何被判处死刑的人应有权要求赦免或减刑。对一切判处死刑的案件均得给予大赦、特赦或减刑。

五、对十八岁以下的人所犯的罪,不得判处死刑;对孕妇不得执行死刑。

六、本公约的任何缔约国不得援引本条的任何部分来推迟或阻止死刑的废除。  

第七条

任何人不得施以酷刑,或予以残忍、不人道或侮辱之处遇或惩罚。非经本人自愿同意,尤不得对任何人作医学或科学试验。  

Article 7

No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. In particular, no one shall be subjected without his free consent to medical or scientific experimentation.  

第七条

任何人均不得加以酷刑或施以残忍的、不人道的或侮辱性的待遇或刑罚。特别是对任何人均不得未经其自由同意而施以医药或科学试验。  

第八条

一、任何人不得使充奴隶、奴隶制度及奴隶贩卖,不论出于何种方式,悉应禁止。

二、任何人不得使充奴工。

三、

(子)任何人不得使服强迫或强制之劳役;

(丑)凡犯罪刑罚得科苦役徒刑之国家,如经管辖法院判处此刑,不得根据第三项(子)款规定,而不服苦役;

(寅)本项所称强迫或强制劳役不包括下列各项:

(一)经法院依法命令拘禁之人,或在此种拘禁假释期间之人,通常必须担任而不属于(丑)款范围之工作或服役;

(二)任何军事性质之服役,及在承认人民可以本其信念反对服兵役之国家,依法对此种人征服之国民兵役;

(三)遇有紧急危难或灾害祸患危及社会生命安宁时征召之服役;

(四)为正常公民义务一部分之工作或服役。

Article 8

1. No one shall be held in slavery; slavery and the slave-trade in all their forms shall be prohibited.

2. No one shall be held in servitude.

3.

(a) No one shall be required to perform forced or compulsory labour;

(b) Paragraph 3 (a) shall not be held to preclude, in countries where imprisonment with hard labour may be imposed as a punishment for a crime, the performance of hard labour in pursuance of a sentence to such punishment by a competent court;

(c) For the purpose of this paragraph the term "forced or compulsory labour" shall not include:

(i) Any work or service, not referred to in subparagraph (b), normally required of a person who is under detention in consequence of a lawful order of a court, or of a person during conditional release from such detention;

(ii) Any service of a military character and, in countries where conscientious objection is recognized, any national service required by law of conscientious objectors;

(iii) Any service exacted in cases of emergency or calamity threatening the life or well-being of the community;

(iv) Any work or service which forms part of normal civil obligations.  

第八条

一、任何人不得使为奴隶;一切形式的奴隶制度和奴隶买卖均应予以禁止。

二、任何人不应被强迫役使。

三、

(甲)任何人不应被要求从事强迫或强制劳动;

(乙)在把苦役监禁作为一种对犯罪的惩罚的国家中,第三款(甲)项的规定不应认为排除按照由合格的法庭关于此项刑罚的判决而执行的苦役;

(丙)为了本款之用,强迫或强制劳动一辞不应包括:

1)通常对一个依照法庭的合法命令而被拘禁的人或在此种拘禁假释期间的人所要求的任何工作或服务,非属(乙)项所述者;

2)任何军事性质的服务,以及在承认良心拒绝兵役的国家中,良心拒绝兵役者依法被要求的任何国家服务;

3)在威胁社会生命或幸福的紧急状态或灾难的情况下受强制的任何服务;

4)属于正常的公民义务的一部分的任何工作或服务。  

第九条

一、人人有权享有身体自由及人身安全。任何人不得无理予以逮捕或拘禁。非依法定理由及程序,不得剥夺任何人之自由。

二、执行逮捕时,应当场向被捕人宣告逮捕原因,并应随即告知被控案由。

三、因刑事罪名而被逮捕或拘禁之人,应迅即解送法官或依法执行司法权力之其他官员,并应于合理期间内审讯或释放。候讯人通常不得加以羁押,但释放得令具报,于审讯时、于司法程序之任何其他阶段、并于一旦执行判决时,候传到场。

四、任何人因逮捕或拘禁而被夺自由时,有权声请法院提审,以迅速决定其拘禁是否合法,如属非法,应即令释放。

五、任何人受非法逮捕或拘禁者,有权要求执行损害赔偿。  

Article 9

1. Everyone has the right to liberty and security of person. No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest or detention. No one shall be deprived of his liberty except on such grounds and in accordance with such procedure as are established by law.

2. Anyone who is arrested shall be informed, at the time of arrest, of the reasons for his arrest and shall be promptly informed of any charges against him.

3. Anyone arrested or detained on a criminal charge shall be brought promptly before a judge or other officer authorized by law to exercise judicial power and shall be entitled to trial within a reasonable time or to release. It shall not be the general rule that persons awaiting trial shall be detained in custody, but release may be subject to guarantees to appear for trial, at any other stage of the judicial proceedings, and, should occasion arise, for execution of the judgement.

4. Anyone who is deprived of his liberty by arrest or detention shall be entitled to take proceedings before a court, in order that that court may decide without delay on the lawfulness of his detention and order his release if the detention is not lawful.

5. Anyone who has been the victim of unlawful arrest or detention shall have an enforceable right to compensation.  

第九条

一、人人有权享有人身自由和安全。任何人不得加以任意逮捕或拘禁。除非依照法律所确定的根据和程序,任何人不得被剥夺自由。

二、任何被逮捕的人,在被逮捕时应被告知逮捕他的理由,并应被迅速告知对他提出的任何指控。

三、任何因刑事指控被逮捕或拘禁的人,应被迅速带见审判官或其他经法律授权行使司法权力的官员,并有权在合理的时间内受审判或被释放。等候审判的人受监禁不应作为一般规则,但可规定释放时应保证在司法程序的任何其他阶段出席审判,并在必要时报到听候执行判决。

四、任何因逮捕或拘禁被剥夺自由的人,有资格向法庭提起诉讼,以便法庭能不拖延地决定拘禁他是否合法以及如果拘禁不合法时命令予以释放。

五、任何遭受非法逮捕或拘禁的受害者,有得到赔偿的权利。  

第十条

一、自由被剥夺之人,应受合于人道及尊重其天赋人格尊严之处遇。

二、

(子)除特殊情形外,被告应与判决有罪之人分别羁押,且应另予与其未经判决有罪之身分相称之处遇;

(丑)少年被告应与成年被告分别羁押,并应尽速即予判决。

三、监狱制度所定监犯之处遇,应以使其悛悔自新,重适社会生活为基本目的。少年犯人应与成年犯人分别拘禁,且其处遇应与其年龄及法律身分相称。  

Article 10

1. All persons deprived of their liberty shall be treated with humanity and with respect for the inherent dignity of the human person.

2.

(a) Accused persons shall, save in exceptional circumstances, be segregated from convicted persons and shall be subject to separate treatment appropriate to their status as unconvicted persons;

(b) Accused juvenile persons shall be separated from adults and brought as speedily as possible for adjudication.

3. The penitentiary system shall comprise treatment of prisoners the essential aim of which shall be their reformation and social rehabilitation. Juvenile offenders shall be segregated from adults and be accorded treatment appropriate to their age and legal status.  

第十条

一、所有被剥夺自由的人应给予人道及尊重其固有的人格尊严的待遇。

二、

(甲)除特殊情况外,被控告的人应与被判罪的人隔离开,并应给予适合于未判罪者身分的分别待遇;

(乙)被控告的少年应与成年人分隔开,并应尽速予以判决。

三、监狱制度应包括以争取囚犯改造和社会复员为基本目的的待遇。少年罪犯应与成年人隔离开,并应给予适合其年龄及法律地位的待遇。  

第十一条

任何人不得仅因无力履行契约义务,即予监禁。  

Article 11

No one shall be imprisoned merely on the ground of inability to fulfil a contractual obligation.  

第十一条

任何人不得仅仅由于无力履行约定义务而被监禁。  

第十二条

一、在一国领土内合法居留之人,在该国领土内有迁徙往来之自由及择居之自由。

二、人人应有自由离去任何国家,连其本国在内。

三、上列权利不得限制,但法律所规定、保护国家安全、公共秩序、公共卫生或风化,或他人权利与自由所必要,且与本公约所确认之其他权利不抵触之限制,不在此限。

四、人人进入其本国之权,不得无理褫夺。  

Article 12

1. Everyone lawfully within the territory of a State shall, within that territory, have the right to liberty of movement and freedom to choose his residence.

2. Everyone shall be free to leave any country, including his own.

3. The above-mentioned rights shall not be subject to any restrictions except those which are provided by law, are necessary to protect national security, public order (ordre public), public health or morals or the rights and freedoms of others, and are consistent with the other rights recognized in the present Covenant.

4. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of the right to enter his own country.  

第十二条

一、合法处在一国领土内的每一个人在该领土内有权享受迁徙自由和选择住所的自由。

二、人人有自由离开任何国家,包括其本国在内。

三、上述权利,除法律所规定并为保护国家安全、公共秩序、公共卫生或道德、或他人的权利和自由所必需且与本公约所承认的其他权利不抵触的限制外,应不受任何其他限制。

四、任何人进入其本国权利,不得任意加以剥夺。  

第十三条

本公约缔约国境内合法居留之外国人,非经依法判定,不得驱逐出境,且除事关国家安全必须急速处分者外,应准其提出不服驱逐出境之理由,及声请主管当局或主管当局特别指定之人员予以覆判,并为此目的委托代理人到场申诉。  

Article 13

An alien lawfully in the territory of a State Party to the present Covenant may be expelled therefrom only in pursuance of a decision reached in accordance with law and shall, except where compelling reasons of national security otherwise require, be allowed to submit the reasons against his expulsion and to have his case reviewed by, and be represented for the purpose before, the competent authority or a person or persons especially designated by the competent authority.  

第十三条

合法处在本公约缔约国领土内的外侨,只有按照依法作出的决定才可以被驱逐出境,并且,除非在国家安全的紧迫原因另有要求的情况下,应准予提出反对驱逐出境的理由和使他的案件得到合格当局或由合格当局特别指定的一人或数人的复审,并为此目的而请人作代表。  

第十四条

一、人人在法院或法庭之前,悉属平等。任何人受刑事控告或因其权利义务涉讼须予判定时,应有权受独立无私之法定管辖法庭公正公开审问。法院得因民主社会之风化、公共秩序或国家安全关系,或于保护当事人私生活有此必要时,或因情形特殊公开审判势必影响司法而在其认为绝对必要之限度内,禁止新闻界及公众旁听审判程序之全部或一部;但除保护少年有此必要,或事关婚姻争执或子女监护问题外,刑事民事之判决应一律公开宣示。

二、受刑事控告之人,未经依法确定有罪以前,应假定其无罪。

三、审判被控刑事罪时,被告一律有权平等享受下列最低限度之保障:

(子)迅即以其通晓之语言,详细告知被控罪名及案由;

(丑)给予充分之时间及便利,准备答辩并与其选任之辩护人联络;

(寅)立即受审,不得无故稽延;

(卯)到庭受审,及亲自答辩或由其选任辩护人答辩;未经选任辩护人者,应告以有此权利;法院认为审判有此必要时,应为其指定公设辩护人,如被告无资力酬偿,得免付之;

(辰)得亲自或间接诘问他造证人,并得声请法院传唤其证人在与他造证人同等条件下出庭作证;

(巳)如不通晓或不能使用法院所用之语言,应免费为备通译协助之;

(午)不得强迫被告自供或认罪。

四、少年之审判,应顾念被告年龄及宜使其重适社会生活,而酌定程序。

五、经判定犯罪者,有权声请上级法院依法覆判其有罪判决及所科刑罚。

六、经终局判决判定犯罪,如后因提出新证据或因发见新证据,确实证明原判错误而经撤销原判或免刑者,除经证明有关证据之未能及时披露,应由其本人全部或局部负责者外,因此判决而服刑之人应依法受损害赔偿。

七、任何人依一国法律及刑事程序经终局判决判定有罪或无罪开释者,不得就同一罪名再予审判或科刑。  

Article 14 1.

All persons shall be equal before the courts and tribunals. In the determination of any criminal charge against him, or of his rights and obligations in a suit at law, everyone shall be entitled to a fair and public hearing by a competent, independent and impartial tribunal established by law. The press and the public may be excluded from all or part of a trial for reasons of morals, public order (ordre public) or national security in a democratic society, or when the interest of the private lives of the parties so requires, or to the extent strictly necessary in the opinion of the court in special circumstances where publicity would prejudice the interests of justice; but any judgement rendered in a criminal case or in a suit at law shall be made public except where the interest of juvenile persons otherwise requires or the proceedings concern matrimonial disputes or the guardianship of children.

2. Everyone charged with a criminal offence shall have the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law.

3. In the determination of any criminal charge against him, everyone shall be entitled to the following minimum guarantees, in full equality:

(a) To be informed promptly and in detail in a language which he understands of the nature and cause of the charge against him;

(b) To have adequate time and facilities for the preparation of his defence and to communicate with counsel of his own choosing;

(c) To be tried without undue delay;

(d) To be tried in his presence, and to defend himself in person or through legal assistance of his own choosing; to be informed, if he does not have legal assistance, of this right; and to have legal assistance assigned to him, in any case where the interests of justice so require, and without payment by him in any such case if he does not have sufficient means to pay for it;

(e) To examine, or have examined, the witnesses against him and to obtain the attendance and examination of witnesses on his behalf under the same conditions as witnesses against him;

(f) To have the free assistance of an interpreter if he cannot understand or speak the language used in court;

(g) Not to be compelled to testify against himself or to confess guilt.

4. In the case of juvenile persons, the procedure shall be such as will take account of their age and the desirability of promoting their rehabilitation.

5. Everyone convicted of a crime shall have the right to his conviction and sentence being reviewed by a higher tribunal according to law.

6. When a person has by a final decision been convicted of a criminal offence and when subsequently his conviction has been reversed or he has been pardoned on the ground that a new or newly discovered fact shows conclusively that there has been a miscarriage of justice, the person who has suffered punishment as a result of such conviction shall be compensated according to law, unless it is proved that the non-disclosure of the unknown fact in time is wholly or partly attributable to him.

7. No one shall be liable to be tried or punished again for an offence for which he has already been finally convicted or acquitted in accordance with the law and penal procedure of each country.  

第十四条

一、所有的人在法庭和裁判所前一律平等。在判定对任何人提出的任何刑事指控或确定他在一件诉讼案中的权利和义务时,人人有资格由一个依法设立的合格的、独立的和无偏倚的法庭进行公正的和公开的审讯。由于民主社会中的道德的、公共秩序的或国家安全的理由,或当诉讼当事人的私生活的利益有此需要时,或在特殊情况下法庭认为公开审判会损害司法利益因而严格需要的限度下,可不使记者和公众出席全部或部分审判;但对刑事案件或法律诉讼的任何判刑决应公开宣布,除非少年的利益另有要求或者诉讼系有关儿童监护权的婚姻争端【作准本作“事关婚姻争执子女监护问题”】。

二、凡受刑事控告者,在未依法证实有罪之前,应有权被视为无罪。

三、在判定对他提出的任何刑事指控时,人人完全平等地有资格享受以下的最低限度的保证:

(甲)迅速以一种他懂得的语言详细地告知对他提出的指控的性质和原因;

(乙)有相当时间和便利准备他的辩护并与他自己选择的律师联络【作准本作“与其选任之辩护人联络”】;

(丙)受审时间不被无故拖延;

(丁)出席受审并亲自替自己辩护或经由他自己所选择的法律援助进行辩护;如果他没有法律援助,要通知他享有这种权利;在司法利益有此需要的案件中,为他指定法律援助,而在他没有足够能力偿付法律援助的案件中,不要他自己付费【作准本作“到庭受审,及亲自答辩或由其选任辩护人答辩;未经选任辩护人者,应告以有此权利;法院认为审判有此必要时,应为其指定公设辩护人,如被告无资力酬偿,得免付之”】;

(戊)讯问或业已讯问对他不利的证人【作准本作“得亲自或间接诘问他造证人”;联合国人权高专办2006年版《核心国际人权条约》文本作“直接或间接讯问对他不利的证人”】,并使对他有利的证人在与对他不利的证人相同的条件下出庭和受讯问;

(己)如他不懂或不会说法庭上所用的语言,能免费获得译员的援助;

(庚)不被强迫作不利于他自己的证言或强迫承认犯罪。

四、对少年的案件,在程序上应考虑到他们的年龄和帮助他们重新做人的需要。

五、凡被判定有罪者,应有权由一个较高级法庭对其定罪及刑罚依法进行复审。

六、在一人按照最后决定已被判定犯刑事罪而其后根据新的或新发现的事实确实表明发生误审,他的定罪被推翻或被赦免的情况下,因这种定罪而受刑罚的人应依法得到赔偿,除非经证明当时不知道的事实的未被及时揭露完全是或部分是由于他自己的缘故。

七、任何人已依一国的法律及刑事程序被最后定罪或宣告无罪者,不得就同一罪名再予审判或惩罚。  

第十五条

一、任何人之行为或不行为,于发生当时依内国法及国际法均不成罪者,不为罪。刑罚不得重于犯罪时法律所规定。犯罪后之法律规定减科刑罚者,从有利于行为人之法律。

二、任何人之行为或不行为,于发生当时依各国公认之一般法律原则为有罪者,其审判与刑罚不受本条规定之影响。  

Article 15

1. No one shall be held guilty of any criminal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a criminal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time when the criminal offence was committed. If, subsequent to the commission of the offence, provision is made by law for the imposition of the lighter penalty, the offender shall benefit thereby.

2. Nothing in this article shall prejudice the trial and punishment of any person for any act or omission which, at the time when it was committed, was criminal according to the general principles of law recognized by the community of nations.  

第十五条

一、任何人的任何行为或不行为,在其发生时依照国家法【作准本作“内国法”】或国际法均不构成刑事罪者,不得据以认为犯有刑事罪。所加的刑罚也不得重于犯罪时适用的规定。如果在犯罪之后依法规定了应处以较轻的刑罚,犯罪者应予减刑【作准本作“犯罪后之法律规定减科刑罚者,从有利于行为人之法律”】。

二、任何人的行为或不行为,在其发生时依照各国公认的一般法律原则为犯罪者,本条规定并不妨碍因该行为或不行为而对任何人进行的审判和对他施加的刑罚。  

第十六条

人人在任何所在有被承认为法律人格之权利。  

Article 16

Everyone shall have the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.  

第十六条

人人在任何地方有权被承认在法律前的人格。  

第十七条

一、任何人之私生活、家庭、住宅或通信,不得无理或非法侵扰,其名誉及信用,亦不得非法破坏。

二、对于此种侵扰或破坏,人人有受法律保护之权利。  

Article 17

1. No one shall be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to unlawful attacks on his honour and reputation.

2. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.  

第十七条

一、任何人的私生活、家庭、住宅或通信不得加以任意或非法干涉,他的荣誉和名誉不得加以非法攻击。

二、人人有权享受法律保护,以免受这种干涉或攻击。  

第十八条

一、人人有思想、信念及宗教之自由。此种权利包括保有或采奉自择之宗教或信仰之自由,及单独或集体、公开或私自以礼拜、戒律、躬行及讲授表示其宗教或信仰之自由。

二、任何人所享保有或采奉自择之宗教或信仰之自由,不得以胁迫侵害之。

三、人人表示其宗教或信仰之自由,非依法律,不受限制,此项限制以保障公共安全、秩序、卫生或风化或他人之基本权利自由所必要者为限。

四、本公约缔约国承允尊重父母或法定监护人确保子女接受符合其本人信仰之宗教及道德教育之自由。  

Article 18

1. Everyone shall have the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion. This right shall include freedom to have or to adopt a religion or belief of his choice, and freedom, either individually or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in worship, observance, practice and teaching.

2. No one shall be subject to coercion which would impair his freedom to have or to adopt a religion or belief of his choice.

3. Freedom to manifest one's religion or beliefs may be subject only to such limitations as are prescribed by law and are necessary to protect public safety, order, health, or morals or the fundamental rights and freedoms of others.

4. The States Parties to the present Covenant undertake to have respect for the liberty of parents and, when applicable, legal guardians to ensure the religious and moral education of their children in conformity with their own convictions.  

第十八条

一、人人有权享受思想、良心和宗教自由。此项权利包括维持或改变他的宗教或信仰的自由【作准本作“保有或采奉自择之宗教或信仰之自由”】,以及单独或集体、公开或秘密地以礼拜、戒律、实践和教义来表明他的宗教或信仰的自由。

二、任何人不得遭受足以损害他维持或改变他的宗教或信仰自由的强迫。

三、表示自己的宗教或信仰的自由,仅只受法律所规定的以及为保障公共安全、秩序、卫生或道德、或他人的基本权利和自由所必需的限制。

四、本公约缔约各国承担,尊重父母和(如适用时)法定监护人保证他们的孩子能按照他们自己的信仰接受宗教和道德教育的自由。  

第十九条

一、人人有保持意见不受干预之权利。

二、人人有发表自由之权利;此种权利包括以语言、文字或出版物、艺术或自己选择之其他方式,不分国界,寻求、接受及传播各种消息及思想之自由。

三、本条第二项所载权利之行使,附有特别责任及义务,故得予以某种限制,但此种限制以经法律规定,且为下列各项所必要者为限:

(子)尊重他人权利或名誉;

(丑)保障国家安全或公共秩序,或公共卫生或风化。  

Article 19

1. Everyone shall have the right to hold opinions without interference.

2. Everyone shall have the right to freedom of expression; this right shall include freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art, or through any other media of his choice.

3. The exercise of the rights provided for in paragraph 2 of this article carries with it special duties and responsibilities. It may therefore be subject to certain restrictions, but these shall only be such as are provided by law and are necessary:

(a) For respect of the rights or reputations of others;

(b) For the protection of national security or of public order (ordre public), or of public health or morals.  

第十九条

一、人人有权持有主张,不受干涉。

二、人人有自由发表意见的权利;此项权利包括寻求、接受和传递各种消息和思想的自由,而不论国界,也不论口头的、书写的、印刷的、采取艺术形式的、或通过他所选择的任何其他媒介。

三、本条第二款所规定的权利的行使带有特殊的义务和责任,因此得受某些限制,但这些限制只应由法律规定并为下列条件所必需:

(甲)尊重他人的权利或名誉;

(乙)保障国家安全或公共秩序,或公共卫生或道德。  

第二十条

一、任何鼓吹战争的宣传,应以法律禁止之。

二、任何鼓吹民族、种族或宗教仇恨之主张,构成煽动歧视、敌视或强暴者,应以法律禁止之。  

Article 20

1. Any propaganda for war shall be prohibited by law.

2. Any advocacy of national, racial or religious hatred that constitutes incitement to discrimination, hostility or violence shall be prohibited by law.  

第二十条

一、任何鼓吹战争的宣传,应以法律加以禁止。

二、任何鼓吹民族、种族或宗教仇恨的主张,构成煽动歧视、敌视或强暴者,应以法律加以禁止。  

第二十一条

和平集会之权利,应予确认。除依法律之规定,且为民主社会维护国家安全或公共安宁、公共秩序、维持公共卫生或风化、或保障他人权利自由所必要者外,不得限制此种权利之行使。  

Article 21

The right of peaceful assembly shall be recognized. No restrictions may be placed on the exercise of this right other than those imposed in conformity with the law and which are necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security or public safety, public order (ordre public), the protection of public health or morals or the protection of the rights and freedoms of others.  

第二十一条

和平集会的权利应被承认。对此项权利的行使不得加以限制,除去按照法律以及在民主社会中为维护国家安全或公共安全、公共秩序,保护公共卫生或道德或他人的权利和自由的需要而加的限制。  

第二十二条

一、人人有自由结社之权利,包括为保障其本身利益而组织及加入工会之权利。

二、除依法律之规定,且为民主社会维护国家安全或公共安宁、公共秩序、维持公共卫生或风化、或保障他人权利自由所必要者外,不得限制此种权利之行使。本条并不禁止对军警人员行使此种权利,加以合法限制。

三、关于结社自由及保障组织权利之国际劳工组织一九四八年公约缔约国,不得根据本条采取立法措施或应用法律,妨碍该公约缔约国所规定之保证。  

Article 22

1. Everyone shall have the right to freedom of association with others, including the right to form and join trade unions for the protection of his interests.

2. No restrictions may be placed on the exercise of this right other than those which are prescribed by law and which are necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security or public safety, public order (ordre public), the protection of public health or morals or the protection of the rights and freedoms of others. This article shall not prevent the imposition of lawful restrictions on members of the armed forces and of the police in their exercise of this right.

3. Nothing in this article shall authorize States Parties to the International Labour Organisation Convention of 1948 concerning Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organize to take legislative measures which would prejudice, or to apply the law in such a manner as to prejudice, the guarantees provided for in that Convention.  

第二十二条

一、人人有权享受与他人结社的自由,包括组织和参加工会以保护他的利益的权利。

二、对此项权利的行使不得加以限制。除去法律所规定的限制以及在民主社会中为维护国家安全或公共安全、公共秩序,保护公共卫生或道德,或他人的权利和自由所必需的限制。本条不应禁止对军队或警察成员的行使此项权利加以合法的限制。

三、本条并不授权参加一九四八年关于结社自由及保护组织权国际劳工组织公约的缔约国采取足以损害该公约中所规定的保证的立法措施,或在应用法律时损害这种保证。  

第二十三条

一、家庭为社会之自然基本团体单位,应受社会及国家之保护。

二、男女已达结婚年龄者,其结婚及成立家庭之权利应予确认。

三、婚姻非经婚嫁双方自由完全同意,不得缔结。

四、本公约缔约国应采取适当步骤,确保夫妻在婚姻方面,在婚姻关系存续期间,以及在婚姻关系消灭时,双方权利责任平等。婚姻关系消灭时,应订定办法,对子女予以必要之保护。 

Article 23

1. The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State.

2. The right of men and women of marriageable age to marry and to found a family shall be recognized.

3. No marriage shall be entered into without the free and full consent of the intending spouses.

4. States Parties to the present Covenant shall take appropriate steps to ensure equality of rights and responsibilities of spouses as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution. In the case of dissolution, provision shall be made for the necessary protection of any children. 

第二十三条

一、家庭是天然的和基本的社会单元,并应受社会和国家的保护。

二、已达结婚年龄的男女缔婚和成立家庭的权利应被承认。

三、只有经男女双方的自由的和完全的同意,才能缔婚。

四、本公约缔约各国应采取适当步骤以保证缔婚双方在缔婚、结婚期间和解除婚约时的权利和责任平等。在解除婚约的情况下,应为儿童规定必要的保护办法。 

第二十四条

一、所有儿童有权享受家庭、社会及国家为其未成年身分给予之必需保护措施,不因种族、肤色、性别、语言、宗教、民族本源或社会阶级、财产或出生而受歧视。

二、所有儿童出生后应立予登记,并取得名字。

三、所有儿童有取得国籍之权。 

Article 24

1. Every child shall have, without any discrimination as to race, colour, sex, language, religion, national or social origin, property or birth, the right to such measures of protection as are required by his status as a minor, on the part of his family, society and the State.

2. Every child shall be registered immediately after birth and shall have a name.

3. Every child has the right to acquire a nationality. 

第二十四条

一、每一儿童应有权享受家庭、社会和国家为其未成年地位给予的必要保护措施,不因种族、肤色、性别、语言、宗教、国籍或社会出身、财产或出生而受任何歧视。

二、每一儿童出生后就立即加以登记,并应有一个名字。

三、每一儿童有权取得一个国籍。 

第二十五条

一、凡属公民,无分第二条所列之任何区别,不受无理限制,均应有权利及机会:

(子)直接或经由自由选择之代表参与政事;

(丑)在真正、定期之选举中投票及被选。选举权必须普及而平等,选举应以无记名投票法行之,以保证选民意志之自由表现;

(寅)以一般平等之条件,服本国公职。 

Article 25

Every citizen shall have the right and the opportunity, without any of the distinctions mentioned in article 2 and without unreasonable restrictions:

(a) To take part in the conduct of public affairs, directly or through freely chosen representatives;

(b) To vote and to be elected at genuine periodic elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret ballot, guaranteeing the free expression of the will of the electors;

(c) To have access, on general terms of equality, to public service in his country. 

第二十五条

每个公民应有下列权利和机会,不受第二条所述的区分和不受不合理的限制:

(甲)直接或通过自由选择的代表参与公共事务;

(乙)在真正的定期的选举中选举和被选举,这种选举应是普遍的和平等的并以无记名投票方式进行,以保证选举人的意志的自由表达;

(丙)在一般的平等的条件下,参加本国公务【作准本作“本国公职”】。 

第二十六条

人人在法律上一律平等,且应受法律平等保护,无所歧视。在此方面,法律应禁止任何歧视,并保证人人享受平等而有效之保护,以防因种族、肤色、性别、语言、宗教、政见或其他主张、民族本源或社会阶级、财产、出生或其他身分而生之歧视。 

Article 26

All persons are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to the equal protection of the law. In this respect, the law shall prohibit any discrimination and guarantee to all persons equal and effective protection against discrimination on any ground such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. 

第二十六条

所有的人在法律前平等,并有权受法律的平等保护,无所歧视。在这方面,法律应禁止任何歧视并保证所有的人得到平等的和有效的保护,以免受基于种族、肤色、性别、语言、宗教、政治或其他见解、国籍或社会出身、财产,出生或其他身分等任何理由的歧视。 

第二十七条

凡有种族、宗教或语言少数团体之国家,属于此类少数团体之人,与团体中其他分子共同享受其固有文化、信奉躬行其固有宗教或使用其固有语言之权利,不得剥夺之。 

Article 27

In those States in which ethnic, religious or linguistic minorities exist, persons belonging to such minorities shall not be denied the right, in community with the other members of their group, to enjoy their own culture, to profess and practise their own religion, or to use their own language. 

第二十七条

在那些存在着人种的、宗教的或语言的少数人的国家中,不得否认这种少数人同他们的集团中的其他成员【作准本作“属于此类少数团体之人,与团体中其他分子”】共同享有自己的文化、信奉和实行自己的宗教或使用自己的语言的权利。 

   

PART IV 

第四部分 

第二十八条

一、兹设置人权事宜委员会(本公约下文简称委员会)委员十八人,执行以下规定之职务。

二、委员会委员应为本公约缔约国国民,品格高尚且在人权问题方面声誉素着之人士;同时并应计及宜选若干具有法律经验之人士担任委员。

三、委员会委员以个人资格当选任职。 

Article 28

1. There shall be established a Human Rights Committee (hereafter referred to in the present Covenant as the Committee). It shall consist of eighteen members and shall carry out the functions hereinafter provided.

2. The Committee shall be composed of nationals of the States Parties to the present Covenant who shall be persons of high moral character and recognized competence in the field of human rights, consideration being given to the usefulness of the participation of some persons having legal experience.

3. The members of the Committee shall be elected and shall serve in their personal capacity. 

第二十八条

一、设立人权事务委员会(在本公约里以下简称委员会)。它应由十八名委员组成,执行下面所规定的任务。

二、委员应由本公约缔约国国民组成,他们应具有崇高道义地位和在人权方面有公认的专长,并且还应考虑使若干具有法律经验的人参加委员会是有用的。

三、委员会委员以其个人身份选出和进行工作。 

第二十九条

一、委员会之委员应自具备第二十八条所规定资格并经本公约缔约国为此提名之人士名单中以无记名投票选举之。

二、本公约各缔约国提出人选不得多于二人,所提人选应为提名国国民。

三、候选人选,得续予提名。 

Article 29

1. The members of the Committee shall be elected by secret ballot from a list of persons possessing the qualifications prescribed in article 28 and nominated for the purpose by the States Parties to the present Covenant.

2. Each State Party to the present Covenant may nominate not more than two persons. These persons shall be nationals of the nominating State.

3. A person shall be eligible for renomination. 

第二十九条

一、委员会委员由具有第二十八条所规定的资格的人的名单中以无记名投票方式选出,这些人由本公约缔约国为此目的而提名。

二、本公约每一缔约国至多得提名二人,这些人应为提名国的国民。

三、任何人可以被再次提名。 

第三十条

一、初次选举至迟应于本公约开始生效后六个月内举行。

二、除依据第三十四条规定宣告出缺而举行之补缺选举外,联合国秘书长至迟应于委员会各次选举日期四个月前以书面邀请本公约缔约国于三个月内提出委员会委员候选人。

三、联合国秘书长应就所提出之候选人,按照字母次序编制名单,标明推荐其候选之缔约国,至迟于每次选举日期一个月前,送达本公约缔约国。

四、委员会委员之选举应由联合国秘书长在联合国会所召集之缔约国会议举行之,该会议以缔约国之三分二出席为法定人数,候选人获票最多且得出席及投票缔约国代表绝对过半数票者当选为委员会委员。 

Article 30

1. The initial election shall be held no later than six months after the date of the entry into force of the present Covenant.

2. At least four months before the date of each election to the Committee, other than an election to fill a vacancy declared in accordance with article 34, the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall address a written invitation to the States Parties to the present Covenant to submit their nominations for membership of the Committee within three months.

3. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall prepare a list in alphabetical order of all the persons thus nominated, with an indication of the States Parties which have nominated them, and shall submit it to the States Parties to the present Covenant no later than one month before the date of each election.

4. Elections of the members of the Committee shall be held at a meeting of the States Parties to the present Covenant convened by the Secretary General of the United Nations at the Headquarters of the United Nations. At that meeting, for which two thirds of the States Parties to the present Covenant shall constitute a quorum, the persons elected to the Committee shall be those nominees who obtain the largest number of votes and an absolute majority of the votes of the representatives of States Parties present and voting. 

第三十条

一、第一次选举至迟应于本公约生效之日起六个月内举行。

二、除按第三十四条进行补缺选举而外,联合国秘书长应在委员会每次选举前至少四个月书面通知本公约各缔约国,请它们在三个月内提出委员会委员的提名。

三、联合国秘书长应按姓名字母次序编造这样提出的被提名人名单,注明提名他们的缔约国,并应在每次选举前至少一个月将这个名单送交本公约各缔约国。

四、委员会委员的选举应在由联合国秘书长在联合国总部召开的本公约缔约国家会议举行。在这个会议里,本公约缔约国的三分之二应构成法定人数;凡获得最多票数以及出席并投票的缔约国代表的绝对多数票的那些被提名人当选为委员会委员。 

第三十一条

一、委员会不得有委员一人以上为同一国家之国民。

二、选举委员会委员时应计及地域公匀分配及确能代表世界不同文化及各主要法系之原则。 

Article 31

1. The Committee may not include more than one national of the same State.

2. In the election of the Committee, consideration shall be given to equitable geographical distribution of membership and to the representation of the different forms of civilization and of the principal legal systems. 

第三十一条

一、委员会不得有一个以上的委员同为一个国家的国民。

二、委员会的选举应考虑到成员的公匀地域分配和各种类型文化及各主要法系的代表性。 

第三十二条

一、委员会委员任期四年。续经提名者连选得连任。但第一次选出之委员中九人任期应为二年;任期二年之委员九人,应于第一次选举完毕后,立由第三十条第四项所称会议之主席以抽签方法决定之。

二、委员会委员任满时之改选,应依照本公约本编以上各条举行之。 

Article 32

1. The members of the Committee shall be elected for a term of four years. They shall be eligible for re-election if renominated. However, the terms of nine of the members elected at the first election shall expire at the end of two years; immediately after the first election, the names of these nine members shall be chosen by lot by the Chairman of the meeting referred to in article 30, paragraph 4.

2. Elections at the expiry of office shall be held in accordance with the preceding articles of this part of the present Covenant. 

第三十二条

一、委员会的委员任期四年。他们如被再次提名可以再次当选。然而,第一次选出的委员中有九名的任期在两年后即届满;这九人的姓名应由第三十条第四款所述会议的主席在第一次选举完毕后立即抽签决定。

二、任期届满后的选举应按公约本部分的上述各条进行。 

第三十三条

一、委员会某一委员倘经其他委员一致认为由于暂时缺席以外之其他原因,业已停止执行职务时,委员会主席应通知联合国秘书长,由其宣告该委员出缺。

二、委员会委员死亡或辞职时,委员会主席应即通知联合国秘书长,由其宣告该委员自死亡或辞职生效之日起出缺。 

Article 33

1. If, in the unanimous opinion of the other members, a member of the Committee has ceased to carry out his functions for any cause other than absence of a temporary character, the Chairman of the Committee shall notify the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall then declare the seat of that member to be vacant.

2. In the event of the death or the resignation of a member of the Committee, the Chairman shall immediately notify the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall declare the seat vacant from the date of death or the date on which the resignation takes effect. 

第三十三条

一、如果委员会其他委员一致认为某一委员由于除暂时缺席以外的其他任何原因而已停止执行其任务时,委员会主席应通知联合国秘书长,秘书长应即宣布该委员的席位出缺。

二、倘遇委员会委员死亡或辞职时,主席应立即通知联合国秘书长,秘书长应宣布该席位自死亡日期或辞职生效日期起出缺。 

第三十四条

一、遇有第三十三条所称情形宣告出缺,且须行补选之委员任期不在宣告出缺后六个月内届满者,联合国秘书长应通知本公约各缔约国,各缔约国得于两个月内依照第二十九条提出候选人,以备补缺。

二、联合国秘书长应就所提出之候选人,按照字母次序编制名单,送达本公约缔约国。补缺选举应于编送名单后依照本公约本编有关规定举行之。

三、委员会委员之当选递补依第三十三条规定宣告之悬缺者,应任职至依该条规定出缺之委员会委员任期届满时为止。 

Article 34

1. When a vacancy is declared in accordance with article 33 and if the term of office of the member to be replaced does not expire within six months of the declaration of the vacancy, the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall notify each of the States Parties to the present Covenant, which may within two months submit nominations in accordance with article 29 for the purpose of filling the vacancy.

2. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall prepare a list in alphabetical order of the persons thus nominated and shall submit it to the States Parties to the present Covenant. The election to fill the vacancy shall then take place in accordance with the relevant provisions of this part of the present Covenant.

3. A member of the Committee elected to fill a vacancy declared in accordance with article 33 shall hold office for the remainder of the term of the member who vacated the seat on the Committee under the provisions of that article. 

第三十四条

一、按照第三十三条宣布席位出缺时,如果被接替的委员的任期从宣布席位出缺时起不在六个月内届满者,联合国秘书长应通知本公约各个缔约国,各缔约国可在两个月内按照第二十九条的规定,为填补空缺的目的提出提名。

二、联合国秘书长应按姓名字母次序编造这样提出来的被提名人名单,提交本公约各缔约国。然后按照公约本部分的有关规定进行补缺选举。

三、为填补按第三十三条宣布出缺的席位而当选的委员会委员的任期为按同条规定出缺的委员会委员的剩余任期。 

第三十五条

委员会委员经联合国大会核准,自联合国资金项下支取报酬,其待遇及条件由大会参酌委员会所负重大责任定之。 

Article 35

The members of the Committee shall, with the approval of the General Assembly of the United Nations, receive emoluments from United Nations resources on such terms and conditions as the General Assembly may decide, having regard to the importance of the Committee's responsibilities. 

第三十五条

委员会委员在获得联合国大会的同意时,可以按照大会鉴于委员会责任的重要性而决定的条件从联合国经费中领取薪俸。 

第三十六条

联合国秘书长应供给委员会必要之办事人员及便利,俾得有效执行本公约所规定之职务。 

Article 36

The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall provide the necessary staff and facilities for the effective performance of the functions of the Committee under the present Covenant. 

第三十六条

联合国秘书长应为委员会提供必要的工作人员和便利,使能有效执行本公约所规定的职务。 

第三十七条

一、委员会首次会议由联合国秘书长在联合国会所召集之。

二、委员会举行首次会议后,遇委员会议事规则规定之情形召开会议。

三、委员会会议通常应在联合国会所或日内瓦联合国办事处举行之。  

Article 37

1. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall convene the initial meeting of the Committee at the Headquarters of the United Nations.

2. After its initial meeting, the Committee shall meet at such times as shall be provided in its rules of procedure.

3. The Committee shall normally meet at the Headquarters of the United Nations or at the United Nations Office at Geneva.  

第三十七条

一、联合国秘书长应在联合国总部召开委员会的首次会议。

二、首次会议以后,委员会应按其议事规则所规定的时间开会。

三、委员会会议通常应在联合国总部或联合国驻日内瓦办事处举行。  

第三十八条

委员会每一委员就职时,应在委员会公开集会中郑重宣言,必当秉公竭诚,执行职务。  

Article 38

Every member of the Committee shall, before taking up his duties, make a solemn declaration in open committee that he will perform his functions impartially and conscientiously.  

第三十八条

委员会每个委员就职以前,应在委员会的公开会议上郑重声明他将一秉良心公正无偏地行使其职权。  

第三十九条

一、委员会应自行选举其职员,任期二年,连选得连任。 二、委员会应自行制定议事规则,其中应有下有列规定:

(子)委员十二人构成法定人数;

(丑)委员会之决议以出席委员过半数之同意为之。  

Article 39

1. The Committee shall elect its officers for a term of two years. They may be re-elected.

2. The Committee shall establish its own rules of procedure, but these rules shall provide, inter alia, that:

(a) Twelve members shall constitute a quorum;

(b) Decisions of the Committee shall be made by a majority vote of the members present.  

第三十九条

一、委员会应选举自己的职员,任期二年。他们可以连选连任。

二、委员会应制定自己的议事规则,但在这些规则中应当规定:

(甲)十二名委员构成法定人数;

(乙)委员会的决定由出席委员的多数票作出。  

第四十条

一、本公约缔约国承允依照下列规定,各就其实施本公约所确认权利而采取之措施,及在享受各种权利方面所获之进展,提具报告书:

(子)本公约对关系缔约国生效后一年内;

(丑)其后遇委员会提出请求时。

二、所有报告书应交由联合国秘书长转送委员会审议。如有任何因素及困难影响本公约之实施,报告书应予说明。

三、联合国秘书长与委员会商洽后得将报告书中属于关系专门机关职权范围之部分副本转送各该专门机关。

四、委员会应研究本公约缔约国提出之报告书。委员会应向缔约国提送其报告书及其认为适当之一般评议。委员会亦得将此等评议连同其自本公约缔约国收到之报告书副本转送经济暨社会理事会。

五、本公约缔约国得就可能依据本条第四项规定提出之任何评议向委员会提出意见。  

Article 40

1. The States Parties to the present Covenant undertake to submit reports on the measures they have adopted which give effect to the rights recognized herein and on the progress made in the enjoyment of those rights:

(a) Within one year of the entry into force of the present Covenant for the States Parties concerned;

(b) Thereafter whenever the Committee so requests.

2. All reports shall be submitted to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall transmit them to the Committee for consideration. Reports shall indicate the factors and difficulties, if any, affecting the implementation of the present Covenant.

3. The Secretary-General of the United Nations may, after consultation with the Committee, transmit to the specialized agencies concerned copies of such parts of the reports as may fall within their field of competence.

4. The Committee shall study the reports submitted by the States Parties to the present Covenant. It shall transmit its reports, and such general comments as it may consider appropriate, to the States Parties. The Committee may also transmit to the Economic and Social Council these comments along with the copies of the reports it has received from States Parties to the present Covenant.

5. The States Parties to the present Covenant may submit to the Committee observations on any comments that may be made in accordance with paragraph 4 of this article.  

第四十条

一、本公约各缔约国承担在(甲)本公约对有关缔约国生效后的一年内及(乙)此后每逢委员会要求这样做的时候,提出关于它们已经采取而使本公约所承认的各项权利得以实施的措施和关于在享受这些权利方面所作出的进展的报告。

二、所有的报告应送交联合国秘书长转交委员会审议。报告中应指出影响实现本公约的因素和困难,如果存在着这种因素和困难的话。

三、联合国秘书长在同委员会磋商之后,可以把报告中属于专门机构职司范围的部分的副本转交有关的专门机构。

四、委员会应研究本公约各缔约国提出的报告,并应把它自己的报告以及它可能认为适当的一般建议送交各缔约国。委员会也可以把这些意见同它从本公约各缔约国收到的报告的副本一起转交经济及社会理事会。

五、本公约各缔约国得就按照本条第四款所可能作出的意见,向委员会提出意见。  

第四十一条

一、本公约缔约国得依据本条规定,随时声明承认委员会有权接受并审议一缔约国指称另一缔约国不履行本公约义务之来文。依本条规定而递送之来文,必须为曾声明其本身承认委员会有权之缔约国所提出方得予以接受并审查。如来文关涉未作此种声明之缔约国,委员会不得接受之。依照本条规定接受之来文应照下开程序处理:

(子)如本公约某一缔约国认为另一缔约国未实施本公约条款,得书面提请该缔约国注意。受请国应于收到此项来文三个月内,向递送来文之国家书面提出解释或任何其他声明,以阐明此事,其中应在可能及适当范围内,载明有关此事之本国处理办法,及业经采取或正在决定或可资援用之救济办法。

(丑)如在受请国收到第一件来文后六个月内,问题仍未获关系缔约国双方满意之调整,当事国任何一方均有权通知委员会及其他一方,将事件提交委员会。

(寅)委员会对于提请处理之事件,应于查明对此事件可以运用之国内救济办法悉已援用无遗后,依照公认之国际法原则处理之。但如救济办法之实施有不合理之拖延,则不在此限。

(卯)委员会审查本条所称之来文时应举行不公开会议。

(辰)以不抵触(寅)款之规定为限,委员会应斡旋关系缔约国俾以尊重本公约所确认之人权及基本自由为基础,友善解决事件。

(巳)委员会对于提请处理之任何事件,得请(丑)款所称之关系缔约国提供任何有关情报。

(午)(丑)款所称关系缔约国有权于委员会审议此事件时出席并提出口头及/或书面陈述。

(未)委员会应于接获依(丑)款所规定通知之日起十二个月内提出报告书:

(一)如已达成(辰)款规定之解决办法,委员会报告书应以扼要叙述事实及所达成之解决办法为限。

(二)如未达成(辰)款规定之解决办法,委员会报告书应以扼要叙述事实为限,关系缔约国提出之书面陈述及口头陈述纪录应附载于报告书内。 关于每一事件,委员会应将报告书送达各关系缔约国。

二、本条之规定应于本公约十缔约国发表本条第一项所称之声明后生效。此种声明应由缔约国交存联合国秘书长,由秘书长将声明副本转送其他缔约国。缔约国得随时通知秘书长撤回声明。此种撤回不得影响对业经依照本条规定递送之来文中所提事件之审议;秘书长接得撤回通知后,除非关系缔约国另作新声明,该国再有来文时不予接受。  

Article 41

1. A State Party to the present Covenant may at any time declare under this article that it recognizes the competence of the Committee to receive and consider communications to the effect that a State Party claims that another State Party is not fulfilling its obligations under the present Covenant. Communications under this article may be received and considered only if submitted by a State Party which has made a declaration recognizing in regard to itself the competence of the Committee. No communication shall be received by the Committee if it concerns a State Party which has not made such a declaration. Communications received under this article shall be dealt with in accordance with the following procedure:

(a) If a State Party to the present Covenant considers that another State Party is not giving effect to the provisions of the present Covenant, it may, by written communication, bring the matter to the attention of that State Party. Within three months after the receipt of the communication the receiving State shall afford the State which sent the communication an explanation, or any other statement in writing clarifying the matter which should include, to the extent possible and pertinent, reference to domestic procedures and remedies taken, pending, or available in the matter;

(b) If the matter is not adjusted to the satisfaction of both States Parties concerned within six months after the receipt by the receiving State of the initial communication, either State shall have the right to refer the matter to the Committee, by notice given to the Committee and to the other State;

(c) The Committee shall deal with a matter referred to it only after it has ascertained that all available domestic remedies have been invoked and exhausted in the matter, in conformity with the generally recognized principles of international law. This shall not be the rule where the application of the remedies is unreasonably prolonged;

(d) The Committee shall hold closed meetings when examining communications under this article;

(e) Subject to the provisions of subparagraph (c), the Committee shall make available its good offices to the States Parties concerned with a view to a friendly solution of the matter on the basis of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms as recognized in the present Covenant;

(f) In any matter referred to it, the Committee may call upon the States Parties concerned, referred to in subparagraph (b), to supply any relevant information;

(g) The States Parties concerned, referred to in subparagraph (b), shall have the right to be represented when the matter is being considered in the Committee and to make submissions orally and/or in writing;

(h) The Committee shall, within twelve months after the date of receipt of notice under subparagraph (b), submit a report:

(i) If a solution within the terms of subparagraph (e) is reached, the Committee shall confine its report to a brief statement of the facts and of the solution reached;

(ii) If a solution within the terms of subparagraph (e) is not reached, the Committee shall confine its report to a brief statement of the facts; the written submissions and record of the oral submissions made by the States Parties concerned shall be attached to the report. In every matter, the report shall be communicated to the States Parties concerned.

2. The provisions of this article shall come into force when ten States Parties to the present Covenant have made declarations under paragraph I of this article. Such declarations shall be deposited by the States Parties with the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall transmit copies thereof to the other States Parties. A declaration may be withdrawn at any time by notification to the Secretary-General. Such a withdrawal shall not prejudice the consideration of any matter which is the subject of a communication already transmitted under this article; no further communication by any State Party shall be received after the notification of withdrawal of the declaration has been received by the Secretary-General, unless the State Party concerned has made a new declaration.  

第四十一条

一、本公约缔约国得按照本条规定,随时声明它承认委员会有权接受和审议一缔约国指控另一缔约国不履行它在本公约下的义务的通知。按照本条规定所作的通知,必须是由曾经声明其本身承认委员会有权的缔约国提出的,才能加以接受和审议。任何通知如果是关于尚未作出这种声明的缔约国的,委员会不得加以接受。按照本条规定所接受的通知,应按下列程序处理:

(甲)如本公约某缔约国认为另一缔约国未执行公约的规定,它可以用书面通知提请该国注意此事项。收到通知的国家应在收到后三个月内对发出通知的国家提供一项有关澄清此事项的书面解释或任何其他的书面声明,其中应可能地和恰当地引证在此事上已经采取的、或即将采取的、或现有适用的国内办法和补救措施。

(乙)如果此事项在收受国接到第一次通知后六个月内尚未处理得使双方满意,两国中任何一国有权用通知委员会和对方的方式将此事项提交委员会。

(丙)委员会对于提交给它的事项,应只有在它认定在这一事项上已按照普遍公认的国际法原则求助于和用尽了所有现有适用的国内补救措施之后,才加以处理。在补救措施的采取被无理拖延的情况下,此项通知则不适用。

(丁)委员会审议按本条规定所作的通知时,应以秘密会议进行。

(戊)在服从分款(丙)的规定的情况下,委员会应对有关缔约国提供斡旋,以便在尊重本公约所承认的人权和基本自由的基础上求得此事项的友好解决。

(己)在提交委员会的任何事项上,委员会得要求分款(乙)内所述的有关缔约国提供任何有关情报。

(庚)在委员会审议此事项时,分款(乙)内所述的有关缔约国应有权派代表出席并提出口头和/或书面说明。

(辛)委员会应在收到按分款(乙)提出的通知之日起十二个月内提出一项报告:

1)如果案件在分款(戊)所规定的条件下获得解决,委员在其报告中应限于对事实经过和所获解决作一简短陈述;

2)如果案件不能在分款(戊)所规定的条件下获得解决,委员会在其报告中应限于对事实经过作一简短陈述;案件有关双方提出的书面说明和口头说明的记录,也应附在报告上。 在每一事项上,应将报告送交各有关缔约国。

二、本条的规定应于有十个本公约缔约国已经作出本条第一款所述的声明时生效。各缔约国的这种声明应交存联合国秘书长;秘书长应将声明副本转交其他缔约国。缔约国得随时通知秘书长撤回声明。此种撤回不得影响对曾经按照本条规定作出通知而要求处理的任何事项的审议;在秘书长收到缔约国撤回声明的通知后,对该缔约国以后所作的通知,不得再予接受,除非该国另外作出了新的声明。  

第四十二条

一、

(子)如依第四十一条之规定提请委员会处理之事件未能获得关系缔约国满意之解决,委员会得经关系缔约国事先同意,指派一专设和解委员会(下文简称和委会)。和委会应为关系缔约国斡旋,俾以尊重本公约为基础,和睦解决问题;

(丑)和委会由关系缔约国接受之委员五人组成之。如关系缔约国于三个月内对和委会组成之全部或一部未能达成协议,未得协议之和委会委员应由委员会用无记名投票法以三分二之多数自其本身委员中选出之。

二、和委会委员以个人资格任职。委员不得为关系缔约国之国民,或为非本公约缔约国之国民,或未依第四十一条规定发表声明之缔约国国民。

三、和委会应自行选举主席及制定议事规则。

四、和委会会议通常应在联合国会所或日内瓦联合国办事处举行,但亦得于和委会谘商联合国秘书长及关系缔约国决定之其他方便地点举行。

五、依第三十六条设置之秘书处应亦为依本条指派之和委会服务。

六、委员会所搜集整理之情报,应提送和委会,和委会亦得请关系缔约国提供任何其他有关情报。

七、和委会于详尽审议案件后,无论如何应于受理该案件十二个月内,向委员会主席提出报告书,转送关系缔约国:

(子)和委会如未能于十二个月内完成案件之审议,其报告书应以扼要说明审议案件之情形为限;

(丑)和委会如能达成以尊重本公约所确认之人权为基础之和睦解决问题办法,其报告书应以扼要说明事实及所达成之解决办法为限;

(寅)如未能达成(丑)款规定之解决办法,和委会报告书应载有其对于关系缔约国争执事件之一切有关事实问题之结论,以及对于事件和睦解决各种可能性之意见。此项报告书应亦载有关系缔约国提出之书面陈述及所作口头陈述之纪录;

(卯)和委会报告书如系依(寅)款之规定提出,关系缔约国应于收到报告书后三个月内通知委员会主席愿否接受和委会报告书内容。

八、本条规定不影响委员会依第四十一条所负之责任。

九、关系缔约国应依照联合国秘书长所提概算,平均负担和委会委员之一切费用。

十、联合国秘书长有权于必要时在关系缔约国依本条第九项偿还用款之前,支付和委会委员之费用。  

Article 42

1.

(a) If a matter referred to the Committee in accordance with article 41 is not resolved to the satisfaction of the States Parties concerned, the Committee may, with the prior consent of the States Parties concerned, appoint an ad hoc Conciliation Commission (hereinafter referred to as the Commission). The good offices of the Commission shall be made available to the States Parties concerned with a view to an amicable solution of the matter on the basis of respect for the present Covenant;

(b) The Commission shall consist of five persons acceptable to the States Parties concerned. If the States Parties concerned fail to reach agreement within three months on all or part of the composition of the Commission, the members of the Commission concerning whom no agreement has been reached shall be elected by secret ballot by a two-thirds majority vote of the Committee from among its members.

2. The members of the Commission shall serve in their personal capacity. They shall not be nationals of the States Parties concerned, or of a State not Party to the present Covenant, or of a State Party which has not made a declaration under article 41.

3. The Commission shall elect its own Chairman and adopt its own rules of procedure.

4. The meetings of the Commission shall normally be held at the Headquarters of the United Nations or at the United Nations Office at Geneva. However, they may be held at such other convenient places as the Commission may determine in consultation with the Secretary-General of the United Nations and the States Parties concerned.

5. The secretariat provided in accordance with article 36 shall also service the commissions appointed under this article.

6. The information received and collated by the Committee shall be made available to the Commission and the Commission may call upon the States Parties concerned to supply any other relevant information.

7. When the Commission has fully considered the matter, but in any event not later than twelve months after having been seized of the matter, it shall submit to the Chairman of the Committee a report for communication to the States Parties concerned:

(a) If the Commission is unable to complete its consideration of the matter within twelve months, it shall confine its report to a brief statement of the status of its consideration of the matter;

(b) If an amicable solution to the matter on tie basis of respect for human rights as recognized in the present Covenant is reached, the Commission shall confine its report to a brief statement of the facts and of the solution reached;

(c) If a solution within the terms of subparagraph (b) is not reached, the Commission's report shall embody its findings on all questions of fact relevant to the issues between the States Parties concerned, and its views on the possibilities of an amicable solution of the matter. This report shall also contain the written submissions and a record of the oral submissions made by the States Parties concerned;

(d) If the Commission's report is submitted under subparagraph (c), the States Parties concerned shall, within three months of the receipt of the report, notify the Chairman of the Committee whether or not they accept the contents of the report of the Commission.

8. The provisions of this article are without prejudice to the responsibilities of the Committee under article 41.

9. The States Parties concerned shall share equally all the expenses of the members of the Commission in accordance with estimates to be provided by the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

10. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall be empowered to pay the expenses of the members of the Commission, if necessary, before reimbursement by the States Parties concerned, in accordance with paragraph 9 of this article.  

第四十二条

一、

(甲)如按第四十一条规定提交委员会处理的事项未能获得使各有关缔约国满意的解决,委员会得经各有关缔约国事先同意,指派一个专设和解委员会(以下简称和委会)。和委会应对有关缔约国提供斡旋,以便在尊重本公约的基础上求得此事项的友好解决;

(乙)和委会由各有关缔约国接受的委员五人组成。如各有关缔约国于三个月内对和委员会组成的全部或一部分未能达成协议,未得协议和委员会委员应由委员会用无记名投票方式以三分之二多数自其本身委员中选出。

二、和委会委员以其个人身分进行工作。委员不得为有关缔约国的国民,或为非本公约缔约国的国民,或未按第四十一条规定作出声明的缔约国的国民。

三、和委会应选举自己的主席及制定自己的议事规则。

四、和委会会议通常应在联合国总部或联合国驻日内瓦办事处举行,但亦得在和委会同联合国秘书长及各有关缔约国磋商后决定的其他方便地点举行。

五、按第三十六条设置的秘书处应亦为按本条指派的和委会服务。

六、委员会所收集整理的情报,应提供给和委会,和委会亦得请有关缔约国提供任何其他有关情报。

七、和委会于详尽审议此事项后,无论如何应于受理该事项后十二个月内,向委员会主席提出报告,转送各有关缔约国:

(甲)如果和委会未能在十二个月内完成对案件的审议,和委会在其报告中应限于对其审议案件的情况作一简短的陈述;

(乙)如果案件不能在尊重本公约所承认的人权的基础上求得友好解决,和委会在其报告中应限于对事实经过和所获解决作一简短陈述;

(丙)如果案件不能在分款(乙)规定的条件下获得解决,和委会在其报告中应说明对于各有关缔约国间争执事件的一切有关事实问题的结论,以及对于就该事件寻求友好解决的各种可能性的意见。此项报告中亦应载有各有关缔约国提出的书面说明和口头说明的记录;

(丁)和委会的报告如系按分款(丙)的规定提出,各有关缔约国应于收到报告后三个月内通知委员会主席是否接受和委员的报告的内容。

八、本条规定不影响委员会在第四十一条下所负的责任。

九、各有关缔约国应依照联合国秘书长所提概算,平均负担和委会委员的一切费用。

十、联合国秘书长应被授权于必要时在各有关缔约国依本条第九款偿还用款之前,支付和委员会委员的费用。  

第四十三条

委员会委员,以及依第四十二条可能指派之专设和解委员会委员,应有权享受联合国特权豁免公约内有关各款为因联合国公务出差之专家所规定之便利、特权与豁免。  

Article 43

The members of the Committee, and of the ad hoc conciliation commissions which may be appointed under article 42, shall be entitled to the facilities, privileges and immunities of experts on mission for the United Nations as laid down in the relevant sections of the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations.  

第四十三条

委员会委员,以及依第四十二条可能指派的专设和解委员会委员,应有权享受联合国特权及豁免公约内有关各款为因联合国公务出差的专家所规定的各种便利、特权与豁免。  

第四十四条

本公约实施条款之通用不得妨碍联合国及各专门机关之组织约章及公约在人权方面所订之程序,或根据此等约章及公约所订之程序,亦不得阻止本公约各缔约国依照彼此间现行之一般或特别国际协定,采用其他程序解决争端。  

Article 44

The provisions for the implementation of the present Covenant shall apply without prejudice to the procedures prescribed in the field of human rights by or under the constituent instruments and the conventions of the United Nations and of the specialized agencies and shall not prevent the States Parties to the present Covenant from having recourse to other procedures for settling a dispute in accordance with general or special international agreements in force between them.  

第四十四条

有关实施本公约的规定,其适用不得妨碍联合国及各专门机构的组织法及公约在人权方面所订的程序,或根据此等组织法及公约所订的程序,亦不得阻止本公约各缔约国依照彼此间现行的一般或特别国际协定,采用其他程序解决争端。  

第四十五条

委员会应经由经济暨社会理事会向联合国大会提送常年工作报告书。  

Article 45

The Committee shall submit to the General Assembly of the United Nations, through the Economic and Social Council, an annual report on its activities.  

第四十五条

委员会应经由经济及社会理事会向联合国大会提出关于它的工作的年度报告。  

第  编  

PART V  

第五部分  

第四十六条

本公约之解释,不得影响联合国宪章及各专门机关组织法内规定联合国各机关及各专门机关分别对本公约所处理各种事项所负责任之规定。  

Article 46

Nothing in the present Covenant shall be interpreted as impairing the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations and of the constitutions of the specialized agencies which define the respective responsibilities of the various organs of the United Nations and of the specialized agencies in regard to the matters dealt with in the present Covenant.  

第四十六条

本公约的任何部分不得解释为有损联合国宪章和各专门机构组织法中确定联合国各机构和各专门机构在本公约所涉及事项方面的责任的规定。  

第四十七条

本公约之解释,不得损害所有民族充分与自由享受及利用其天然财富与资源之天赋权利。  

Article 47

Nothing in the present Covenant shall be interpreted as impairing the inherent right of all peoples to enjoy and utilize fully and freely their natural wealth and resources.  

第四十七条

本公约的任何部分不得解释为有损所有人民充分地和自由地享受和利用它们的天然财富与资源的固有的权利。  

第  编  

PART VI  

第六部分  

第四十八条

一、本公约听由联合国会员国或其专门机关会员国、国际法院规约当事国及经联合国大会邀请为本公约缔约国之任何其他国家签署。

二、本公约须经批准。批准书应送交联合国秘书长存放。

三、本公约听由本条第一项所称之任何国家加入。

四、加入应以加入书交存联合国秘书长为之。

五、联合国秘书长应将每一批准书或加入书之交存,通知已经签署或加入本公约之所有国家。  

Article 48

1. The present Covenant is open for signature by any State Member of the United Nations or member of any of its specialized agencies, by any State Party to the Statute of the International Court of Justice, and by any other State which has been invited by the General Assembly of the United Nations to become a Party to the present Covenant.

2. The present Covenant is subject to ratification. Instruments of ratification shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

3. The present Covenant shall be open to accession by any State referred to in paragraph 1 of this article.

4. Accession shall be effected by the deposit of an instrument of accession with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

5. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall inform all States which have signed this Covenant or acceded to it of the deposit of each instrument of ratification or accession.  

第四十八条

一、本公约开放给联合国任何会员国或其专门机构的任何会员国、国际法院规约的任何当事国、和经联合国大会邀请为本公约缔约国的任何其他国家签字。

二、本公约须经批准。批准书应交存联合国秘书长。

三、本公约应开放给本条第一款所述的任何国家加入。

四、加入应向联合国秘书长交存加入书。

五、联合国秘书长应将每一批准书或加入书的交存通知已经签字或加入本公约的所有国家。  

第四十九条

一、本公约应自第三十五件批准书或加入书送交联合国秘书长存放之日起三个月后发生效力。

二、对于在第三十五件批准书或加入书交存后批准或加入本公约之国家,本公约应自该国交存批准书或加入书之日起三个月后发生效力。  

Article 49

1. The present Covenant shall enter into force three months after the date of the deposit with the Secretary-General of the United Nations of the thirty-fifth instrument of ratification or instrument of accession.

2. For each State ratifying the present Covenant or acceding to it after the deposit of the thirty-fifth instrument of ratification or instrument of accession, the present Covenant shall enter into force three months after the date of the deposit of its own instrument of ratification or instrument of accession.  

第四十九条

一、本公约应自第三十五件批准书或加入书交存联合国秘书长之日起三个月生效。

二、对于在第三十五件批准书或加入书交存后批准或加入本公约的国家,本公约应自该国交存批准书或加入书之日起三个月生效。  

第五十条

本公约各项规定应一律适用于联邦国家之全部领土,并无限制或例外。  

Article 50

The provisions of the present Covenant shall extend to all parts of federal States without any limitations or exceptions.  

第五十条

本公约的规定应扩及联邦国家的所有部分,没有任何限制和例外。  

第五十一条

一、本公约缔约国得提议修改本公约,将修正案提交联合国秘书长。秘书长应将提议之修正案分送本公约各缔约国,并请其通知是否赞成召开缔约国会议,以审议并表决所提议案。如缔约国三分一以上赞成召开会议,秘书长应以联合国名义召集之。经出席会议并投票之缔约国过半数通过之修正案,应提请联合国大会核可。

二、修正案经联合国大会核可,并经本公约缔约国三分二各依本国宪法程序接受后,即发生效力。

三、修正案生效后,对接受此种修正之缔约国具有拘束力,其他缔约国仍受本公约原订条款及其前此所接受条正案之拘束。  

Article 51

1. Any State Party to the present Covenant may propose an amendment and file it with the Secretary-General of the United Nations. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall thereupon communicate any proposed amendments to the States Parties to the present Covenant with a request that they notify him whether they favour a conference of States Parties for the purpose of considering and voting upon the proposals. In the event that at least one third of the States Parties favours such a conference, the Secretary-General shall convene the conference under the auspices of the United Nations. Any amendment adopted by a majority of the States Parties present and voting at the conference shall be submitted to the General Assembly of the United Nations for approval.

2. Amendments shall come into force when they have been approved by the General Assembly of the United Nations and accepted by a two-thirds majority of the States Parties to the present Covenant in accordance with their respective constitutional processes.

3. When amendments come into force, they shall be binding on those States Parties which have accepted them, other States Parties still being bound by the provisions of the present Covenant and any earlier amendment which they have accepted.  

第五十一条

一、本公约的任何缔约国均得提出对本公约的修正案,并将其提交联合国秘书长。秘书长应立即将提出的修正案转知本公约各缔约国,同时请它们通知秘书长是否赞成召开缔约国家会议以审议这个提案并对它进行表决。在至少有三分之一缔约国家赞成召开这一会议的情况下,秘书长应在联合国主持下召开此会议。为会议上出席投票的多数缔约国家所通过的任何修正案,应提交联合国大会批准。

二、此等修正案由联合国大会批准并为本公约缔约国的三分之二多数按照它们各自的宪法程序加以接受后,即行生效。

三、此等修正案生效时,对已加接受的各缔约国有拘束力,其他缔约国仍受本公约的条款和它们已接受的任何以前的修正案的拘束。  

第五十二条

除第四十八条第五项规定之通知外,联合国秘书长应将下列事项通知同条第一项所称之所有国家:

(子)依第四十八条所为之签署、批准及加入;

(丑)依第四十九条本公约发生效力之日期,及依第五十一条任何修正案发生效力之日期。  

Article 52

Irrespective of the notifications made under article 48, paragraph 5, the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall inform all States referred to in paragraph I of the same article of the following particulars:

(a) Signatures, ratifications and accessions under article 48;

(b) The date of the entry into force of the present Covenant under article 49 and the date of the entry into force of any amendments under article 51.  

第五十二条

除按照第四十八条第五款作出的通知外,联合国秘书长应将下列事项通知同条第一款所述的所有国家:

(甲)按照第四十八条规定所作的签字、批准和加入;

(乙)本公约按照第四十九条规定生效的日期,以及对本公约的任何修正案按照第五十一条规定生效的日期。  

第五十三条

一、本公约应交存联合国档库,其中、英、法、俄及西文各本同一作准。

二、联合国秘书长应将本公约正式副本分送第四十八条所称之所有国家。  

Article 53

1. The present Covenant, of which the Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited in the archives of the United Nations.

2. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall transmit certified copies of the present Covenant to all States referred to in article 48.  

第五十三条

一、本公约应交存联合国档库,其中文英文法文俄文西班牙文各本同一作准。

二、联合国秘书长应将本公约的正式副本送第四十八条所指的所有国家。  

 

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