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《经济社会文化权利国际公约》中英文版本对照

时间:2012-03-29      来源:本站      作者:admin      点击:
本文将《经济社会文化权利国际公约》(ICESCR)作准中文本、英文本和通用中文本逐条对照列出,便于研究、使用。

【说  明】

本文将《经济社会文化权利国际公约》(International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights/ICESCR)作准中文本、英文本和通用中文本逐条对照列出,便于研究、使用。

 

作准中、英文本录自联合国大会1966年12月16日第2200A(XXI)号决议。原始作准中文本作“经济社会文化权利国际盟约”;2002年1月联合国应中国政府建议,将“盟约”一词改为“公约”。“通用中文本”出现于新中国恢复在联合国合法席位之后,来源不明,但目前在国内外普遍使用(例如全国人大中国人权研究会联合国网站联合国“国际文件汇编”等)。两份中文本存在较大区别。

 

 

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作准中文本


作准英文本


通用中文本


经济社会文化权利国际公约

 

 

 
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

 

 
经济、社会及文化权利国际公约 

 

 

  

 

 

Preamble

 

 

  

 

本公约缔约国,

鉴于依据联合国宪章示之原则,人类一家,对于人人天赋尊严及其平等而且不可割让权利之确认,实系世界自由、正义与和平之基础,

确认此种权利源于天赋人格尊严,

确认依据世界人权宣言之昭示,唯有创造环境,使人人除享有公民及政治权利而外,并得享受经济社会文化权利,始克实现自由人类享受无所恐惧不虞匮乏之理想,

鉴于联合国宪章之规定,各国负有义务,必须促进人权及自由之普遍尊重及遵守,

明认个人对他人及对其隶属之社会,负有义务,故职责所在,必须力求本公约所确认各种权利之促进及遵守,

爰议定条款如下:

 

The States Parties to the present Covenant,

Considering that, in accordance with the principles proclaimed in the Charter of the United Nations, recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,

Recognizing that these rights derive from the inherent dignity of the human person,

Recognizing that, in accordance with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the ideal of free human beings enjoying freedom from fear and want can only be achieved if conditions are created whereby everyone may enjoy his economic, social and cultural rights, as well as his civil and political rights,

Considering the obligation of States under the Charter of the United Nations to promote universal respect for, and observance of, human rights and freedoms,

Realizing that the individual, having duties to other individuals and to the community to which he belongs, is under a responsibility to strive for the promotion and observance of the rights recognized in the present Covenant,

Agree upon the following articles:

 

本公约缔约各国,

考虑到,按照联合国宪章所宣布的原则,对人类家庭所有成员的固有尊严及其平等的和不移的权利的承认,乃是世界自由、正义与和平的基础,

确认这些权利是源于人身的固有尊严,

确认,按照世界人权宣言,只有在创造了使人可以享有其经济、社会及文化权利,正如享有其公民和政治权利一样的条件的情况下,才能实现自由人类享有免于恐惧和匮乏的自由的理想,

考虑到各国根据联合国宪章负有义务促进对人的权利和自由的普通尊重和遵行,

认识到个人对其他个人和对他所属的社会负有义务,应为促进和遵行本公约所承认的权利而努力,

兹同意下述各条:

 

 

  

 

 

PART I

 

 

第一部分

 

第一条

一、所有民族均享有自决权,根据此种权利,自由决定其政治地位及自由从事其经济、社会与文化之发展。

二、所有民族得为本身之目的,自由处置其天然财富及资源,但不得妨害因基于互惠原则之国际经济合作及因国际法而生之任何义务。无论在何种情形下,民族之生计,不容剥夺。

三、本公约缔约国包括负责管理非自治及托管领土之国家在内,均应遵照联合国宪章规定,促进自决权之实现并尊重此种权利。

 

Article 1

1. All peoples have the right of self-determination. By virtue of that right they freely determine their political status and freely pursue their economic, social and cultural development.

2. All peoples may, for their own ends, freely dispose of their natural wealth and resources without prejudice to any obligations arising out of international economic co-operation, based upon the principle of mutual benefit, and international law. In no case may a people be deprived of its own means of subsistence.

3. The States Parties to the present Covenant, including those having responsibility for the administration of Non-Self-Governing and Trust Territories, shall promote the realization of the right of self-determination, and shall respect that right, in conformity with the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations.

 

第一条

一、所有人民都有自决权。他们凭这种权利自由决定他们的政治地位,并自由谋求他们的经济、社会和文化的发展。

二、所有人民得为他们自己的目的自由处置他们的天然财富和资源,而不损害根据基于互利原则的国际经济合作和国际法而产生的任何义务。在任何情况下不得剥夺一个人民自己的生存手段。

三、本公约缔约各国,包括那些负责管理非自治领土和托管领土的国家,应在符合联合国宪章规定的条件下,促进自决权的实现,并尊重这种权利。

 

 

  

 

 

PART II

 

第二部分

第二条

一、本公约缔约国承允尽其资源能力所及,各自并借国际协助与合作,特别在经济与技术方面之协助与合作,采取种种步骤,务期以所有适当方法,尤其包括通过立法措施,逐渐使本公约所确认之各种权利完全实现。

二、本公约缔约国承允保证人人行使本公约所载之各种权利,不因种族、肤色、性别、语言、宗教、政见或其他主张、民族本源或社会阶级、财产、出生或其他身分等等而受歧视。

三、发展中国家在适当顾及人权及国民经济之情形下,得决定保证非本国国民享受本公约所确认经济权利之程度。

Article 2

1. Each State Party to the present Covenant undertakes to take steps, individually and through international assistance and co-operation, especially economic and technical, to the maximum of its available resources, with a view to achieving progressively the full realization of the rights recognized in the present Covenant by all appropriate means, including particularly the adoption of legislative measures.

2. The States Parties to the present Covenant undertake to guarantee that the rights enunciated in the present Covenant will be exercised without discrimination of any kind as to race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.

3. Developing countries, with due regard to human rights and their national economy, may determine to what extent they would guarantee the economic rights recognized in the present Covenant to non-nationals.

 

第二条

一、每一缔约国家承担尽最大能力个别采取步骤或经由国际援助和合作,特别是经济和技术方面的援助和合作,采取步骤,以便用一切适当方法,尤其包括用立法方法,逐渐达到本公约中所承认的权利的充分实现。

二、本公约缔约各国承担保证,本公约所宣布的权利应予普遍行使,而不得有例如种族、肤色、性别、语言、宗教、政治或其他见解、国籍或社会出身、财产、出生或其他身分等任何区分。

三、发展中国家,在适当顾到人权及它们的民族经济的情况下,得决定它们对非本国国民的享受本公约中所承认的经济权利,给予什么程度的保证。

 

第三条

本公约缔约国承允确保本公约所载一切经济社会文化权利之享受,男女权利一律平等。

 

Article 3

The States Parties to the present Covenant undertake to ensure the equal right of men and women to the enjoyment of all economic, social and cultural rights set forth in the present Covenant.

 

第三条

本公约缔约各国承担保证男子和妇女在本公约所载一切经济、社会及文化权利方面有平等的权利。

 

第四条

本公约缔约国确认人民享受国家遵照本公约规定所赋予之权利时,国家对此类权利仅得加以法律明定之限制,又其所定限制以与此类权利之性质不相抵触为准,且加以限制之唯一目的应在增进民主社会之公共福利。

 

Article 4

The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize that, in the enjoyment of those rights provided by the State in conformity with the present Covenant, the State may subject such rights only to such limitations as are determined by law only in so far as this may be compatible with the nature of these rights and solely for the purpose of promoting the general welfare in a democratic society.

 

第四条

本公约缔约各国承认,在对各国依据本公约而规定的这些权利的享有方面,国家对此等权利只能加以限制同这些权利的性质不相违背而且只是为了促进民主社会中的总的福利的目的的法律所确定的限制。

 

第五条

一、本公约条文不得解释为国家、团体或个人有权从事活动或实行行为,破坏本公约确认之任何权利或自由或限制此种权利或自由逾越本公约规定之程度。

二、任何国家内依法律、公约条例或习俗而承认或存在之任何基本人权,不得借口本公约未予确认或确认之范围较狭,而加以限制或减免义务。

 

Article 5

1. Nothing in the present Covenant may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights or freedoms recognized herein, or at their limitation to a greater extent than is provided for in the present Covenant.

2. No restriction upon or derogation from any of the fundamental human rights recognized or existing in any country in virtue of law, conventions, regulations or custom shall be admitted on the pretext that the present Covenant does not recognize such rights or that it recognizes them to a lesser extent.

 

第五条

一、本公约中任何部分不得解释为隐示任何国家、团体或个人有权利从事于任何旨在破坏本公约所承认的任何权利或自由或对它们加以较本公约所规定的范围更广的限制的活动或行为。

二、对于任何国家中依据法律、惯例、条例或习惯而被承认或存在的任何基本人权,不得借口本公约未予承认或只在较小范围上予以承认而予以限制或克减。

 

 

  

 

 

PART III

 

第三部分

第六条

一、本公约缔约国确认人人有工作之权利,包括人人应有机会凭本人自由选择或接受之工作谋生之权利,并将采取适当步骤保障之。

二、本公约缔约国为求完全实现此种权利而须采取之步骤,应包括技术与职业指导及训练方案、政策与方法,以便在保障个人基本政治与经济自由之条件下,造成经济、社会及文化之稳步发展以及充分之生产性就业。

 

Article 6

1. The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right to work, which includes the right of everyone to the opportunity to gain his living by work which he freely chooses or accepts, and will take appropriate steps to safeguard this right.

2. The steps to be taken by a State Party to the present Covenant to achieve the full realization of this right shall include technical and vocational guidance and training programmes, policies and techniques to achieve steady economic, social and cultural development and full and productive employment under conditions safeguarding fundamental political and economic freedoms to the individual.

 

第六条

一、本公约缔约各国承认工作权,包括人人应有机会凭其自由选择和接受的工作来谋生的权利,并将采取适当步骤来保障这一权利。

二、本公约缔约各国为充分实现这一权利而采取的步骤应包括技术的和职业的指导和训练,以及在保障个人基本政治和经济自由的条件下达到稳定的经济、社会和文化的发展和充分的生产就业的计划、政策和技术。

 

第七条

本公约缔约国确认人人有权享受公平与良好之工作条件,尤须确保:

(子)所有工作者之报酬使其最低限度均能:

(一)获得公允之工资,工作价值相等者享受同等报酬,不得有任何区别,尤须保证妇女之工作条件不得次于男子,且应同工同酬;

(二)维持本人及家属符合本公约规定之合理生活水平;

(丑)安全卫生之工作环境;

(寅)人人有平等机会于所就职业升至适当之较高等级,不受年资才能以外其他考虑之限制。

(卯)休息、闲暇、工作时间之合理限制与照给薪资之定期休假,公共假日亦须给酬。

 

Article 7

The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right of everyone to the enjoyment of just and favourable conditions of work which ensure, in particular:

(a) Remuneration which provides all workers, as a minimum, with:

(i) Fair wages and equal remuneration for work of equal value without distinction of any kind, in particular women being guaranteed conditions of work not inferior to those enjoyed by men, with equal pay for equal work;

(ii) A decent living for themselves and their families in accordance with the provisions of the present Covenant;

(b) Safe and healthy working conditions;

(c) Equal opportunity for everyone to be promoted in his employment to an appropriate higher level, subject to no considerations other than those of seniority and competence;

(d) Rest, leisure and reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay, as well as remuneration for public holidays

 

第七条

本公约缔约各国承认人人有权享受公正或良好的工作条件,特别要保证:

(甲)最低限度给予所有工人以下列报酬:

1)公平的工资和同值工作同酬而没有任何歧视,特别是保证妇女享受不差于男子所享受的工作条件,并享受同工同酬;

2)保证他们自己和他们的家庭得有符合本公约规定的过得去的生活;

(乙)安全和卫生的工作条件;

(丙)人人在其行业中适当的提级的同等机会,除资历和能力的考虑外,不受其他考虑的限制;

(丁)休息、闲暇和工作时间的合理限制,定期给薪休假以及公共假日报酬。

 

第八条

一、本公约缔约国承允确保:

(子)人人有权为促进及保障其经济及社会利益而组织工会及加入其自身选择之工会,仅受关系组织规章之限制。除依法律之规定,且为民主社会维护国家安全或公共秩序、或保障他人权利自由所必要者外,不得限制此项权利之行使;

(丑)工会有权成立全国联合会或同盟,后者有权组织或参加国际工会组织;

(寅)工会有权自由行使职权,除依法律之规定,且为民主社会维护国家安全或公共秩序、或保障他人权利自由所必要者外,不得限制此种权利之行使;

(卯)罢工权利,但以其行使符合国家法律为限。

二、本条并不禁止对军警或国家行政机关人员行使此种权利,加以合法限制。

三、关于结社自由及保障组织权利之国际劳工组织一九四八年公约缔约国,不得依据本条采取立法措施或应用法律,妨碍该公约所规定之保证。

 

Article 8

1. The States Parties to the present Covenant undertake to ensure:

(a) The right of everyone to form trade unions and join the trade union of his choice, subject only to the rules of the organization concerned, for the promotion and protection of his economic and social interests. No restrictions may be placed on the exercise of this right other than those prescribed by law and which are necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security or public order or for the protection of the rights and freedoms of others;

(b) The right of trade unions to establish national federations or confederations and the right of the latter to form or join international trade-union organizations;

(c) The right of trade unions to function freely subject to no limitations other than those prescribed by law and which are necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security or public order or for the protection of the rights and freedoms of others;

(d) The right to strike, provided that it is exercised in conformity with the laws of the particular country.

2. This article shall not prevent the imposition of lawful restrictions on the exercise of these rights by members of the armed forces or of the police or of the administration of the State.

3. Nothing in this article shall authorize States Parties to the International Labour Organisation Convention of 1948 concerning Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organize to take legislative measures which would prejudice, or apply the law in such a manner as would prejudice, the guarantees provided for in that Convention.

 

第八条

一、本公约缔约各国承担保证:

(甲)人人有权组织工会和参加他所选择的工会,以促进和保护他的经济和社会利益;这个权利只受有关工会的规章的限制。对这一权利的行使,不得加以除法律所规定及在民主社会中为了国家安全或公共秩序的利益或为保护他人的权利和自由所需要的限制以外的任何限制;

(乙)工会有权建立全国性的协会或联合会,有权组织或参加国际工会组织;

(丙)工会有权自由地进行工作,不受除法律所规定及在民主社会中为了国家安全或公共秩序的利益或为保护他人的权利和自由所需要的限制以外的任何限制;

(丁)有权罢工,但应按照各个国家的法律行使此项权利。

二、本条不应禁止对军队或警察或国家行政机关成员的行使这些权利,加以合法的限制。

三、本条并不授权参加一九四八条关于结社自由及保护组织权国际劳工公约的缔约国采取足以损害该公约中所规定的保证的立法措施,或在应用法律时损害这种保证。

 

第九条

本公约缔约国确认人人有权享受社会保障,包括社会保险。

 

Article 9

The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right of everyone to social security, including social insurance.

 

第九条

本公约缔约各国承认人人有权享受社会保障,包括社会保险。

 

第十条

本公约缔约国确认:

一、家庭为社会之自然基本团体单位,应尽力广予保护与协助,其成立及当其负责养护教育受扶养之儿童时,尤应予以保护与协助。婚姻必须婚嫁双方自由同意方得缔结。

二、母亲于分娩前后相当期间内应受特别保护。工作之母亲在此期间应享受照给薪资或有适当社会保障福利之休假。

三、所有儿童及少年应有特种措施予以保护与协助,不得因出生或其他关系而受任何歧视。儿童及青年应有保障,免受经济及社会剥削。凡雇用儿童及少年从事对其道德或健康有害或有生命危险或可能妨碍正常发育之工作者均应依法惩罚。国家亦应订定年龄限制,凡出资雇用未及龄之童工,均应禁止并应依法惩罚。

 

Article 10

The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize that:

1. The widest possible protection and assistance should be accorded to the family, which is the natural and fundamental group unit of society, particularly for its establishment and while it is responsible for the care and education of dependent children. Marriage must be entered into with the free consent of the intending spouses.

2. Special protection should be accorded to mothers during a reasonable period before and after childbirth. During such period working mothers should be accorded paid leave or leave with adequate social security benefits.

3. Special measures of protection and assistance should be taken on behalf of all children and young persons without any discrimination for reasons of parentage or other conditions. Children and young persons should be protected from economic and social exploitation. Their employment in work harmful to their morals or health or dangerous to life or likely to hamper their normal development should be punishable by law. States should also set age limits below which the paid employment of child labour should be prohibited and punishable by law.

 

第十条

本公约缔约各国承认:

一、对作为社会的自然和基本的单元的家庭,特别是对于它的建立和当它负责照顾和教育未独立的儿童时,应给予尽可能广泛的保护和协助。缔婚必须经男女双方自由同意。

二、对母亲,在产前和产后的合理期间,应给以特别保护。在此期间,对有工作的母亲应给以给薪休假或有适当社会保障福利金的休假。

三、应为一切儿童和少年采取特殊的保护和协助措施,不得因出身或其他条件而有任何歧视。儿童和少年应予保护免受经济和社会的剥削。雇佣他们做对他们的道德或健康有害或对生命有危险的工作或做足以妨害他们正常发育的工作,依法应受惩罚。各国亦应规定限定的年龄,凡雇佣这个年龄以下的童工,应予禁止和依法应受惩罚。

 

第十一条

一、本公约缔约国确认人人有权享受其本人及家属所需之适当生活程度,包括适当之衣食住及不断改善之生活环境。缔约国将采取适当步骤确保此种权利之实现,同时确认在此方面基于自由同意之国际合作极为重要。

二、本公约缔约国既确认人人有免受饥饿之基本权利,应个别及经由国际合作,采取为下列目的所需之措施,包括特定方案在内:

(子)充分利用技术与科学知识、传布营养原则之知识、及发展或改革土地制度而使天然资源获得最有效之开发与利用,以改进粮食生产、保贮及分配之方法;

(丑)计及粮食输入及输出国家双方问题,确保世界粮食供应按照需要,公平分配。

 

Article 11

1. The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right of everyone to an adequate standard of living for himself and his family, including adequate food, clothing and housing, and to the continuous improvement of living conditions. The States Parties will take appropriate steps to ensure the realization of this right, recognizing to this effect the essential importance of international co-operation based on free consent.

2. The States Parties to the present Covenant, recognizing the fundamental right of everyone to be free from hunger, shall take, individually and through international co-operation, the measures, including specific programmes, which are needed:

(a) To improve methods of production, conservation and distribution of food by making full use of technical and scientific knowledge, by disseminating knowledge of the principles of nutrition and by developing or reforming agrarian systems in such a way as to achieve the most efficient development and utilization of natural resources;

(b) Taking into account the problems of both food-importing and food-exporting countries, to ensure an equitable distribution of world food supplies in relation to need.

 

第十一条

一、本公约缔约各国承认人人有权为他自己和家庭获得相当的生活水准,包括足够的食物、衣着和住房,并能不断改进生活条件。各缔约国将采取适当的步骤保证实现这一权利,并承认为此而实行基于自愿同意的国际合作的重要性。

二、本公约缔约各国既确认人人享有免于饥饿的基本权利,应为下列目的,个别采取必要的措施或经由国际合作采取必要的措施,包括具体的计划在内:

(甲)用充分利用科技知识、传播营养原则的知识、和发展或改革土地制度以使天然资源得到最有效的开发和利用等方法,改进粮食的生产、保存及分配方法;

(乙)在顾到粮食入口国家和粮食出口国家的问题的情况下,保证世界粮食供应,会按照需要,公平分配。

 

第十二条

一、本公约缔约国确认人人有权享受可能达到之最高标准之身体与精神健康。

二、本公约缔约国为求充分实现此种权利所采取之步骤,应包括为达成下列目的所必要之措施:

(子)设法减低死产率及婴儿死亡率,并促进儿童之健康发育;

(丑)改善环境及工业卫生之所有方面;

(寅)预防、疗治及扑灭各种传染病、风土病、职业病以及其他疾病;

(卯)创造环境,确保人人患病时均能享受医药服务与医药护理。

 

Article 12

1. The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health.

2. The steps to be taken by the States Parties to the present Covenant to achieve the full realization of this right shall include those necessary for:

(a) The provision for the reduction of the stillbirth-rate and of infant mortality and for the healthy development of the child;

(b) The improvement of all aspects of environmental and industrial hygiene;

(c) The prevention, treatment and control of epidemic, endemic, occupational and other diseases;

(d) The creation of conditions which would assure to all medical service and medical attention in the event of sickness.

 

第十二条

一、本公约缔约各国承认人人有权享有能达到的最高的体质和心理健康的标准。

二、本公约缔约各国为充分实现这一权利而采取的步骤应包括为达到下列目标所需的步骤:

(甲)减低死胎率和婴儿死亡率,和使儿童得到健康的发育;

(乙)改善环境卫生和工业卫生的各个方面;

(丙)预防、治疗和控制传染病、风土病、职业病以及其他的疾病;

(丁)创造保证人人在患病时能得到医疗照顾的条件。

 

第十三条

一、本公约缔约国确认人人有受教育之权。缔约国公认教育应谋人格及人格尊严意识之充分发展,增强对人权与基本自由之尊重。缔约国又公认教育应使人人均能参加自由社会积极贡献,应促进各民族间及各种族、人种或宗教团体间之了解、容恕及友好关系,并应推进联合国维持和平之工作。

二、本公约缔约国为求充分实现此种权利起见,确认:

(子)初等教育应属强迫性质,免费普及全民;

(丑)各种中等教育,包括技术及职业中等教育在内,应以一切适当方法,特别应逐渐采行免费教育制度,广行举办,庶使人人均有接受机会;

(寅)高等教育应根据能力,以一切适当方法,特别应逐渐采行免费教育制度,使人人有平等接受机会;

(卯)基本教育应尽量予以鼓励或加紧办理,以利未受初等教育或未能完成初等教育之人;

(辰)各级学校完备之制度应予积极发展,适当之奖学金制度应予设置,教育人员之物质条件亦应不断改善。

三、本公约缔约国承允尊重父母或法定监护人为子女选择符合国家所规定或认可最低教育标准之非公立学校,及确保子女接受符合其本人信仰之宗教及道德教育之自由。

四、本条任何部分不得解释为干涉个人或团体设立及管理教育机构之自由,但以遵守本条第一项所载原则及此等机构所施教育符合国家所定最低标准为限。

 

Article 13

1. The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right of everyone to education. They agree that education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and the sense of its dignity, and shall strengthen the respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. They further agree that education shall enable all persons to participate effectively in a free society, promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations and all racial, ethnic or religious groups, and further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace.

2. The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize that, with a view to achieving the full realization of this right:

(a) Primary education shall be compulsory and available free to all;

(b) Secondary education in its different forms, including technical and vocational secondary education, shall be made generally available and accessible to all by every appropriate means, and in particular by the progressive introduction of free education;

(c) Higher education shall be made equally accessible to all, on the basis of capacity, by every appropriate means, and in particular by the progressive introduction of free education;

(d) Fundamental education shall be encouraged or intensified as far as possible for those persons who have not received or completed the whole period of their primary education;

(e) The development of a system of schools at all levels shall be actively pursued, an adequate fellowship system shall be established, and the material conditions of teaching staff shall be continuously improved.

3. The States Parties to the present Covenant undertake to have respect for the liberty of parents and, when applicable, legal guardians to choose for their children schools, other than those established by the public authorities, which conform to such minimum educational standards as may be laid down or approved by the State and to ensure the religious and moral education of their children in conformity with their own convictions.

4. No part of this article shall be construed so as to interfere with the liberty of individuals and bodies to establish and direct educational institutions, subject always to the observance of the principles set forth in paragraph I of this article and to the requirement that the education given in such institutions shall conform to such minimum standards as may be laid down by the State.

 

第十三条

一、本公约缔约各国承认,人人有受教育的权利。它们同意,教育应鼓励人的个性和尊严的充分发展,加强对人权和基本自由的尊重,并应使所有的人能有效地参加自由社会,促进各民族之间和各种族、人种或宗教团体之间的了解、容忍和友谊,和促进联合国维护和平的各项活动。

二、本公约缔约各国认为,为了充分实现这一权利起见:

(甲)初等教育应属义务性质并一律免费;

(乙)各种形式的中等教育,包括中等技术和职业教育,应以一切适当方法,普遍设立,并对一切人开放,特别要逐渐做到免费;

(丙)高等教育应根据成绩,以一切适当方法,对一切人平等开放,特别要逐渐做到免费;

(丁)对那些未受到或未完成初等教育的人的基础教育,应尽可能加以鼓励或推进;

(戊)各级学校的制度,应积极加以发展;适当的奖学金制度,应予设置;教员的物质条件,应不断加以改善。

三、本公约缔约各国承担,尊重父母和(如适用时)法定监护人的下列自由:为他们的孩子选择非公立的但系符合于国家所可能规定或批准的最低教育标准的学校,并保证他们的孩子能按照他们自己的信仰接受宗教和道德教育。

四、本条的任何部分不得解释为干涉个人或团体设立及管理教育机构的自由,但以遵守本条第一款所述各项原则及此等机构实施的教育必须符合于国家所可能规定的最低标准为限。

 

第十四条

本公约缔约国倘成为缔约国时尚未能在其本土或其所管辖之其他领土内推行免费强迫初等教育,承允在两年内订定周详行动计划,庶期在计划所订之合理年限内,逐渐实施普遍免费强迫教育之原则。

 

Article 14

Each State Party to the present Covenant which, at the time of becoming a Party, has not been able to secure in its metropolitan territory or other territories under its jurisdiction compulsory primary education, free of charge, undertakes, within two years, to work out and adopt a detailed plan of action for the progressive implementation, within a reasonable number of years, to be fixed in the plan, of the principle of compulsory education free of charge for all.

 

第十四条

本公约任何缔约国在参加本公约时尚未能在其宗主领土或其他在其管辖下的领土实施免费的、义务性的初等教育者,承担在两年之内制定和采取一个逐步实行的详细的行动计划,其中规定在合理的年限内实现一切人均得受免费的义务性教育的原则。

 

第十五条

一、本公约缔约国确认人人有权:

(子)参加文化生活;

(丑)享受科学进步及其应用之惠;

(寅)对其本人之任何科学、文学或艺术作品所获得之精神与物质利益,享受保护之惠。

二、本公约缔约国为求充分实现此种权利而采取之步骤,应包括保存、发扬及传播科学与文化所必要之办法。

三、本公约缔约国承允尊重科学研究及创作活动所不可缺少之自由。

四、本公约缔约国确认鼓励及发展科学文化方面国际接触与合作之利。

 

Article 15

1. The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right of everyone:

(a) To take part in cultural life;

(b) To enjoy the benefits of scientific progress and its applications;

(c) To benefit from the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author.

2. The steps to be taken by the States Parties to the present Covenant to achieve the full realization of this right shall include those necessary for the conservation, the development and the diffusion of science and culture.

3. The States Parties to the present Covenant undertake to respect the freedom indispensable for scientific research and creative activity.

4. The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the benefits to be derived from the encouragement and development of international contacts and co-operation in the scientific and cultural fields.

 

第十五条

一、本公约缔约各国承认人人有权:

(甲)参加文化生活;

(乙)享受科学进步及其应用所产生的利益;

(丙)对其本人的任何科学、文学或艺术作品所产生的精神上和物质上的利益,享受被保护之利。

二、本公约缔约各国为充分实现这一权利而采取的步骤应包括为保存、发展和传播科学和文化所必需的步骤。

三、本公约缔约各国承担尊重进行科学研究和创造性活动所不可缺少的自由。

四、本公约缔约各国认识到鼓励和发展科学与文化方面的国际接触和合作的好处。

 

 

  

 

 

PART IV

 

第四部分

第十六条

一、本公约缔约国承允依照本公约本编规定,各就其促进遵守本公约所确认各种权利而采取之措施及所获之进展,提具报告书。

二、

(子)所有报告书应提交联合国秘书长,秘书长应将副本送由经济暨社会理事会依据本公约规定审议;

(丑)如本公约缔约国亦为专门机关会员国,其所递报告书或其中任何部分涉及之事项,依据各该专门机关之组织法系属其责任范围者,联合国秘书长亦应将报告书副本或其中任何有关部分,转送各该专门机关。

 

Article 16

1. The States Parties to the present Covenant undertake to submit in conformity with this part of the Covenant reports on the measures which they have adopted and the progress made in achieving the observance of the rights recognized herein.

2.

(a) All reports shall be submitted to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall transmit copies to the Economic and Social Council for consideration in accordance with the provisions of the present Covenant;

(b) The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall also transmit to the specialized agencies copies of the reports, or any relevant parts therefrom, from States Parties to the present Covenant which are also members of these specialized agencies in so far as these reports, or parts therefrom, relate to any matters which fall within the responsibilities of the said agencies in accordance with their constitutional instruments.

 

第十六条

一、本公约缔约各国承担依照本公约这一部分提出关于在遵行本公约所承认的权利方面所采取的措施和所取得的进展的报告。

二、

(甲)所有的报告应提交给联合国秘书长;联合国秘书长应将报告副本转交经济及社会理事会按照本公约的规定审议;

(乙)本公约任何缔约国,同时是一个专门机构的成员国者,其所提交的报告或其中某部分,倘若与按照该专门机构的组织法规定属于该机构职司范围的事项有关,联合国秘书长应同时将报告副本或其中的有关部分转交该专门机构。

 

第十七条

一、本公约缔约国应按经济暨社会理事会于本公约生效后一年内与缔约国及各有关专门机关商洽订定之办法,分期提出报告书。

二、报告书中得说明由于何种因素或困难以致影响本公约所规定各种义务履行之程度。

三、倘有关之情报前经本公约缔约国提送联合国或任何专门机关在案,该国得仅明确注明该项情报已见何处,不必重行提送。

 

Article 17

1. The States Parties to the present Covenant shall furnish their reports in stages, in accordance with a programme to be established by the Economic and Social Council within one year of the entry into force of the present Covenant after consultation with the States Parties and the specialized agencies concerned.

2. Reports may indicate factors and difficulties affecting the degree of fulfilment of obligations under the present Covenant.

3. Where relevant information has previously been furnished to the United Nations or to any specialized agency by any State Party to the present Covenant, it will not be necessary to reproduce that information, but a precise reference to the information so furnished will suffice.

 

第十七条

一、本公约缔约各国应按照经济及社会理事会在同本公约缔约各国和有关的专门机构进行咨商后,于本公约生效后一年内,所制定的计划,分期提供报告。

二、报告得指出影响履行本公约义务的程度的因素和困难。

三、凡有关的材料业经本公约任一缔约国提供给联合国或某一专门机构时,即不需要复制该项材料,而只需确切指明所提供材料的所在地即可。

 

第十八条

经济暨社会理事会得依其根据联合国宪章所负人权及基本自由方面之责任与各专门机关商订办法,由各该机关就促进遵守本公约规定属其工作范围者所获之进展,向理事会具报。此项报告书并得详载各该机关之主管机构为实施本公约规定所通过决议及建议之内容。

 

Article 18

Pursuant to its responsibilities under the Charter of the United Nations in the field of human rights and fundamental freedoms, the Economic and Social Council may make arrangements with the specialized agencies in respect of their reporting to it on the progress made in achieving the observance of the provisions of the present Covenant falling within the scope of their activities. These reports may include particulars of decisions and recommendations on such implementation adopted by their competent organs.

 

第十八条

经济及社会理事会按照其根据联合国宪章在人权方面的责任,得和专门机构就专门机构向理事会报告在使本公约中属于各专门机构活动范围的规定获得遵行方面的进展作出安排。这些报告得包括它们的主管机构所采取的关于此等履行措施的决定和建议的细节。

 

第十九条

经济暨社会理事会得将各国依第十六条及第十七条之规定,以及各专门机关依第十八条之规定,就人权问题提出之报告书,交由人权委员会研讨并提具一般建议,或斟酌情形供其参考。

 

Article 19

The Economic and Social Council may transmit to the Commission on Human Rights for study and general recommendation or, as appropriate, for information the reports concerning human rights submitted by States in accordance with articles 16 and 17, and those concerning human rights submitted by the specialized agencies in accordance with article 18.

 

第十九条

经济及社会理事会得将各国按照第十六条和第十七条规定提出的关于人权的报告和各专门机构按照第十八条规定提出的关于人权的报告转交人权委员会以供研究和提出一般建议或在适当时候参考。

 

第二十条

本公约各关系缔约国及各关系专门机关得就第十九条所称之任何一般建议,或就人权委员会任何报告书或此项报告书所述及任何文件中关于此等一般建议之引证,向经济暨社会理事会提出评议。

 

Article 20

The States Parties to the present Covenant and the specialized agencies concerned may submit comments to the Economic and Social Council on any general recommendation under article 19 or reference to such general recommendation in any report of the Commission on Human Rights or any documentation referred to therein.

 

第二十条

本公约缔约各国以及有关的专门机构得就第十九条中规定的任何一般建议或就人权委员会的任何报告中的此种一般建议或其中所提及的任何文件,向经济及社会理事会提出意见。

 

第二十一条

经济暨社会理事会得随时向大会提出报告书,连同一般性质之建议,以及从本公约缔约国与各专门机关收到关于促进普遍遵守本公约确认之各种权利所采措施及所获进展之情报撮要。

 

Article 21

The Economic and Social Council may submit from time to time to the General Assembly reports with recommendations of a general nature and a summary of the information received from the States Parties to the present Covenant and the specialized agencies on the measures taken and the progress made in achieving general observance of the rights recognized in the present Covenant.

 

第二十一条

经济及社会理事会得随时和其本身的报告一起向大会提出一般性的建议以及从本公约各缔约国和各专门机构收到的关于在普遍遵行本公约所承认的权利方面所采取的措施和所取得的进展的材料的摘要。

 

第二十二条

经济暨社会理事会得将本公约本编各项报告书中之任何事项,对于提供技术协助之联合国其他机关,各该机关之辅助机关及各专门机关,可以助其各就职权范围,决定可能促进切实逐步实施本公约之各项国际措施是否得当者,提请各该机关注意。

 

Article 22

The Economic and Social Council may bring to the attention of other organs of the United Nations, their subsidiary organs and specialized agencies concerned with furnishing technical assistance any matters arising out of the reports referred to in this part of the present Covenant which may assist such bodies in deciding, each within its field of competence, on the advisability of international measures likely to contribute to the effective progressive implementation of the present Covenant.

 

第二十二条

经济及社会理事会得提请从事技术援助的其他联合国机构和它们的辅助机构以及有关的专门机构对本公约这一部分所提取的各种报告所引起的任何事项予以注意,这些事项可能帮助这些机构在它们各自的权限内决定是否需要采取有助于促进本公约的逐步切实履行的国际措施。

 

第二十三条

本公约缔约国一致认为实现本公约所确认权利之国际行动,可有订立公约,通过建议,提供技术协助及举行与关系国政府会同办理之区域会议及技术会议从事谘商研究等方法。

 

Article 23

The States Parties to the present Covenant agree that international action for the achievement of the rights recognized in the present Covenant includes such methods as the conclusion of conventions, the adoption of recommendations, the furnishing of technical assistance and the holding of regional meetings and technical meetings for the purpose of consultation and study organized in conjunction with the Governments concerned.

 

第二十三条

本公约缔约各国同意为实现本公约所承认的权利而采取的国际行动应包括签订公约、提出建议、进行技术援助、以及为磋商和研究的目的同有关政府共同召开区域会议和技术会议等方法。

 

第二十四条

本公约之解释,不得影响联合国宪章及各专门机关组织法内规定联合国各机关及各专门机关分别对本公约所处理各种事项所负责任之规定。

 

Article 24

Nothing in the present Covenant shall be interpreted as impairing the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations and of the constitutions of the specialized agencies which define the respective responsibilities of the various organs of the United Nations and of the specialized agencies in regard to the matters dealt with in the present Covenant.

 

第二十四条

本公约的任何部分不得解释为有损联合国宪章和各专门机构组织法中确定联合国各机构和各专门机构在本公约所涉及事项方面的责任的规定。

 

第二十五条

本公约之解释,不得损害所有民族充分与自由享受及利用其天然财富与资源之天赋权利。

 

Article 25

Nothing in the present Covenant shall be interpreted as impairing the inherent right of all peoples to enjoy and utilize fully and freely their natural wealth and resources.

第二十五条

本公约中任何部分不得解释为有损所有人民充分地和自由地享受和利用他们的天然财富与资源的固有权利。

 

 

  

 

 

PART V

 

第五部分

第二十六条

一、本公约听由联合国会员国或其专门机关会员国、国际法院规约当事国及经联合国大会邀请为本公约缔约国之任何其他国家签署。

二、本公约须经批准。批准书应送交联合国秘书长存放。

三、本公约听由本条第一项所称之任何国家加入。

四、加入应以加入书交存联合国秘书长为之。

五、联合国秘书长应将每一批准书或加入书之交存,通知已经签署或加入本公约之所有国家。

 

Article 26

1. The present Covenant is open for signature by any State Member of the United Nations or member of any of its specialized agencies, by any State Party to the Statute of the International Court of Justice, and by any other State which has been invited by the General Assembly of the United Nations to become a party to the present Covenant.

2. The present Covenant is subject to ratification. Instruments of ratification shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

3. The present Covenant shall be open to accession by any State referred to in paragraph 1 of this article.

4. Accession shall be effected by the deposit of an instrument of accession with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

5. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall inform all States which have signed the present Covenant or acceded to it of the deposit of each instrument of ratification or accession.

 

第二十六条

一、本公约开放给联合国任何会员国或其专门机构的任何会员国、国际法院规约的任何当事国、和经联合国大会邀请为本公约缔约国的任何其他国家签字。

二、本公约须经批准。批准书应交存联合国秘书长。

三、本公约应开放给本条第一款所述的任何国家加入。

四、加入应向联合国秘书长交存加入书。

五、联合国秘书长应将每一批准书或加入书的交存通知已经签字或加入本公约的所有国家。

 

第二十七条

一、本公约应自第三十五件批准书或加入书送交联合国秘书长存放之日起三个月后发生效力。

二、对于在第三十五件批准书或加入书交存后批准或加入本公约之国家,本公约应自该国交存批准书或加入书之日起三个月后发生效力。

 

Article 27

1. The present Covenant shall enter into force three months after the date of the deposit with the Secretary-General of the United Nations of the thirty-fifth instrument of ratification or instrument of accession.

2. For each State ratifying the present Covenant or acceding to it after the deposit of the thirty-fifth instrument of ratification or instrument of accession, the present Covenant shall enter into force three months after the date of the deposit of its own instrument of ratification or instrument of accession.

 

第二十七条

一、本公约应自第三十五件批准书或加入书交存联合国秘书长之日起三个月后生效。

二、对于在第三十五件批准书或加入书交存后批准或加入本公约的国家,本公约应自该国交存其批准书或加入书之日起三个月后生效。

 

第二十八条

本公约各项规定应一律适用于联邦国家之全部领土,并无限制或例外。

 

Article 28

The provisions of the present Covenant shall extend to all parts of federal States without any limitations or exceptions.

 

第二十八条

本公约的规定应扩及联邦国家的所有部分,没有任何限制和例外。

 

第二十九条

一、本公约缔约国得提议修改本公约,将修正案提交联合国秘书长。秘书长应将提议之修正案分送本公约各缔约国,并请其通知是否赞成召开缔约国会议,以审议并表决所提议案。如缔约国三分一以上赞成召开会议,秘书长应以联合国名义召集之。经出席会议并投票之缔约国过半数通过之修正案,应提请联合国大会核可。

二、修正案经联合国大会核可,并经本公约缔约国三分二各依本国宪法程序接受后,即发生效力。

三、修正案生效后,对接受此种修正之缔约国具有拘束力,其他缔约国仍受本公约原订条款及其前此所接受修正案之拘束。

 

Article 29

1. Any State Party to the present Covenant may propose an amendment and file it with the Secretary-General of the United Nations. The Secretary-General shall thereupon communicate any proposed amendments to the States Parties to the present Covenant with a request that they notify him whether they favour a conference of States Parties for the purpose of considering and voting upon the proposals. In the event that at least one third of the States Parties favours such a conference, the Secretary-General shall convene the conference under the auspices of the United Nations. Any amendment adopted by a majority of the States Parties present and voting at the conference shall be submitted to the General Assembly of the United Nations for approval.

2. Amendments shall come into force when they have been approved by the General Assembly of the United Nations and accepted by a two-thirds majority of the States Parties to the present Covenant in accordance with their respective constitutional processes.

3. When amendments come into force they shall be binding on those States Parties which have accepted them, other States Parties still being bound by the provisions of the present Covenant and any earlier amendment which they have accepted.

 

第二十九条

一、本公约的任何缔约国均得提出对本公约的修正案,并将其提交联合国秘书长。秘书长应立即将提出的修正案转知本公约各缔约国,同时请它们通知秘书长是否赞成召开缔约国会议以审议这个提案并对它进行表决。在至少有三分之一缔约国赞成召开这一会议的情况下,秘书长应在联合国主持下召开此会议。为会议上出席并投票的多数缔约国所通过的任何修正案,应提交联合国大会批准。

二、此等修正案由联合国大会批准并为本公约缔约国的三分之二多数按照它们各自的宪法程序加以接受后,即行生效。

三、此等修正案生效时,对已加接受的各缔约国有拘束力,其他缔约国仍受本公约的条款和它们已接受的任何以前的修正案的拘束。

 

第三十条

除第二十六条第五项规定之通知外,联合国秘书长应将下列事项通知同条第一项所称之所有国家:

(子)依第二十六条所为之签署、批准及加入;

(丑)依第二十七条本公约发生效力之日期,及依第二十九条任何修正案发生效力之日期。

 

Article 30

Irrespective of the notifications made under article 26, paragraph 5, the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall inform all States referred to in paragraph I of the same article of the following particulars:

(a) Signatures, ratifications and accessions under article 26;

(b) The date of the entry into force of the present Covenant under article 27 and the date of the entry into force of any amendments under article 29.

 

第三十条

除按照第二十六条第五款作出的通知外,联合国秘书长应将下列事项通知同条第一款所述的所有国家:

(甲)按照第二十六条规定所作的签字、批准和加入;

(乙)本公约按照第二十七条规定生效的日期,以及对本公约的任何修正案按照第二十九条规定生效的日期。

 

第三十一条

一、本公约应交存联合国档库,其中、英、法、俄及西文各本同一作准。

二、联合国秘书长应将本公约正式副本分送第二十六条所称之所有国家。

 

Article 31

1. The present Covenant, of which the Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited in the archives of the United Nations.

2. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall transmit certified copies of the present Covenant to all States referred to in article 26.

 

第三十一条

一、本公约应交存联合国档库,其中文英文法文俄文西班牙文各本同一作准。

二、联合国秘书长应将本公约的正式副本分送第二十六条所指的所有国家。

 

 

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