罗尔·瓦伦堡人权与人道法研究所专题
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罗尔·瓦伦堡人权与人道法研究所专题

科雷尔呼吁联合国安理会更加关注叙利亚危机

时间:2013-01-03      来源:国际司法监督      作者:      点击:
瓦伦堡研究所理事会主席、联合国前副秘书长兼法律顾问汉斯•科雷尔近日致信联合国安理会成员国代表,希望安理会对法治与国际冲突更加关注。

《国际司法监督》2012年秋季号载 罗尔•瓦伦堡人权与人道法研究所理事会主席、联合国前副秘书长兼法律顾问汉斯•科雷尔(Hans Corell)近日以个人身份致信联合国安理会成员国驻联合国代表,希望其对法治与国际冲突更加关注,而非纠缠于联合国改革问题。



汉斯·科雷尔

 

在这封落款为2012年11月22日的信中,科雷尔请求联合国安理会更加关注叙利亚危机,其中包括“严重的国际犯罪”。科雷尔指出,若安理会常任理事国已逐步落实其2008年提出的一份宣言草案之要求,“叙利亚的悲剧是否本可避免”

 

科雷尔为联合国安理会常任理事国起草的这份宣言草案全文如下(2008年12月10日;中英文对照):

 

 


科雷尔为安理会常任理事国所拟宣言



Draft Declaration for Consideration by the Permanent Members of the Security Council

 

 

 

我们,安全理事会常任理事国,

 

铭记安全理事会在联合国宪章下维持国际和平及安全之责任;

 

明认对国际和平及安全之现时威胁,正于气候变化与世界人口激增之作用下加剧;

 

注意安全理事会在显须行动之情形下未能行动,或将酿成不必要之人类苦楚,并将招致其他方面之干预,包括未按要求经安理会授权即使用武力;

 

明认此类他方行动将损害对联合国宪章之尊重,且该行为本身将直接威胁国际和平及安全;

 

注意安全理事会成员未能以严格遵行国际法及联合国宪章而树立榜样,这将重创在国家与国际层面建立法治之努力;

 

 

爰议定如下庄严保证:

 


 

我们承诺:

 

——严格遵行我们已承担之国际法义务,尤其为联合国宪章所明订者;

 

——仅当我们最重大、直接之国家利益受影响时,始得于安全理事会行使否决权;一旦行使该权力,解释其原由;

 

——在国际关系中克制武力威胁或使用武力:一旦其将破坏任何国家之领土完整或政治独立;除非按照联合国宪章第五十一条行使自卫,或按照安全理事会据宪章第七章所作清楚、明确之授权;

 

——采取有力举措实施干预,一旦:政府严重侵犯人权,或未能保护其人民免遭种族灭绝、战争罪、族裔清洗、反人类罪,这已威胁到国际和平及安全;或在其他情形下承担保护责任时。

 

 

We, the Permanent Members of the Security Council, 

 

Mindful of the responsibility of the Security Council under the Charter of the United Nations for the maintenance of international peace and security; 

 

Realizing that the ever present threats to international peace and security are now exacerbated by the effects of climate change in combination with a rapidly growing world population; 

 

Aware of the fact that failure on the part of the Security Council to act in situations where action is obviously required may cause unnecessary human suffering and may tempt others to intervene, including by the use of force, without the required authorization of the Council; 

 

Realizing that such actions by others will undermine the respect for the Charter of the United Nations and may in themselves pose a direct threat to international peace and security; 

 

Conscious of the fact that a failure by the members of Security Council to set the example by scrupulously adhering to international law and the Charter of the United Nations will have devastating effects on the efforts to establish the rule of law at the national and international level, 

 

Have agreed to make the following solemn undertaking:

 

We pledge:

 

- To scrupulously adhere to the obligations under international law that we have undertaken and in particular those laid down in the Charter of the United Nations; 

 

- To make use of our veto power in the Security Council only if our most serious and direct national interests are affected and to explain, in case we do use this power, the reasons for doing so; 

 

- To refrain in our international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state unless in self-defence in accordance with Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations or in accordance with a clear and unambiguous mandate by the Security Council under Chapter VII;

 

- To take forceful action to intervene in situations when international peace and security are threatened by governments that seriously violate human rights or fail to protect their populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity or when otherwise the responsibility to protect is engaged.

 

 

【科雷尔注】

我强调:上述提议旨在激发对该议题之严肃讨论,提议文本应视作引玉之砖,而非试图逐字逐句拟就该宣言文本并提议之。

 

 

[Note by Ambassador Corell]

I would like to emphasize that the intention behind this proposal is to inspire a serious discussion of the issue and that the text should be regarded as food for thought rather than an attempt to propose the exact wording of such a declaration.

 

 

  

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