维也纳世界人权会议二十周年Vienna+20
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维也纳世界人权会议二十周年Vienna+20

皮莱:取得历史性的人权突破的二十年后,仍有许多工作要做

时间:2013-06-29      来源:联合国人权高专办      作者:admin      点击:
“维也纳宣言和行动纲领已取得了一些显著成就,但仍遭受了许多挫折,这座宏伟的大楼尚未竣工。”

 

       联合国高专办2013年6月27日讯 联合国人权事务高级专员纳维•皮莱在6月25日表示,自二十年前一项历史性的人权文件在维也纳通过以来,已取得了一些显著成就,但仍遭受了许多挫折,“这座宏伟的大楼尚未竣工。”

 

       皮莱为在奥地利首都召开的为期两天的维也纳+20大会致开幕词,她表示,1993年6月世界人权大会上一致通过的《维也纳宣言和行动纲领》是“过去二十五年里制定的最重要的人权文件,也是过去一百年最强筋的人权文件之一。”她说,《维也纳宣言和行动纲领》“提炼了普遍的、不可分割的、相互依存且相互联系的人权原则,并牢固树立起普遍性概念,使各国对推动和保护所有人的所有人权作出承诺,且‘不论其政治、经济和文化体系’。”

 

      皮莱说,1993年的维也纳大会促成了“许多关键领域的历史性进步”。大会还设立了人权事务高级专员办事处,皮莱现任办事处主管(办事处的二十周年纪念活动将在9月举行)。

 

      人权高专向到场参加由奥地利政府组织的二十周年纪念活动的500多名外交官、民间社会成员、学界与人权专家发言称:“多亏有维也纳铺就的道路,过去二十年内出现了许多进展。”

 

      皮莱说:“我们有理由庆祝一系列里程碑式的重大协定,包括设立全球首个常设国际刑事法院——其设立过程在维也纳得到了大力推动——此外还包括建立新的机制以促进和保护妇女、少数群体、移徙工人及其家庭和其他群体的人权。维也纳为设立强有力的联合国人权机制打开了大门,包括扩大特别程序的数量。”她提到,当前的48项特别机制涵盖了全部的人权领域。维也纳还增强了专家委员会体系,也就是条约机构,它们的作用是协助各国在履行其国际人权条约之下的法律义务时的表现、以及在重要的国家人权机构体系(目前存在于103个国家)中的表现。

 

      然而高级专员警告,工作远未完成:“我们必须认识到,在许多方面,我们都未能在《维也纳宣言和行动纲领》基础上进一步发展。《世界人权宣言》开篇鼓舞人心的承诺——人人生而自由,在尊严和权利上一律平等——对于许许多多人来说仍只是一个梦想。”

 

      她说:“二十年前的这一周,狙击手正在萨拉热窝射杀街上的儿童。”她提到了发生在波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那的战争。那场战争“距离世界大会的会场不足一天车程。”

 

       “今天,仅仅在更远一些的地方,叙利亚的儿童、妇女和男子正在痛苦地哭喊,祈求我们施以援手。”人权高专说,“我们再一次让他们失望了——正如我们曾在一系列其他恐怖冲突中所做的那样,包括在阿富汗、索马里、卢旺达、刚果民主共和国和伊拉克——这还不是全部。”

 

      皮莱说:“国际社会一次又一次承诺,要保护平民免受屠戮和严重的人权侵犯。然而,即便在我向各位发言之时,许多妇女正遭到绑架和强奸,医院正成为攻击目标,无辜人员仍然因为无差别炮击和恶意屠杀而血洒大地。”

 

       “这都是不可容忍的。然而它们不断发生。我们沿着二十年前在维也纳铺就的道路上前进,这一进程充满了挫折与成就。有些承诺已履行了一半——例如在国际正义领域,我们已经拥有国际法庭,一些值得关注的问题已移交至国际法庭,而另一些则没有,比如叙利亚问题。但是在二十年之前,我们自纽伦堡以来根本就没有国际法庭。”

 

        “我们在此相聚,并非庆祝历史。”高级专员说,“我们是在讨论为这座尚未竣工的宏伟大楼设计蓝图。我们有必要将《维也纳宣言和行动纲领》视作一项鲜活的文件,它能够并且应该继续指导我们的行动与目标。众多人权仍未普遍实现,也未被视为不可分割和相互联系,尽管这是我们的承诺。各国仍然不断提出文化相对性的观点。妇女、少数群体与移徙者仍受到歧视和虐待。发展权仍未被每个人接受。权力依然腐败,领导者依然愿意为了获取权力而牺牲人民。”

 

      皮莱表示,维也纳大会的另一项关键成就是其大力鼓舞了公民社会组织和其他人权捍卫者(她本人在1993年大会上代表一家妇女权利非政府组织)。她说,这类组织“扩张的程度当时无法想象,尤其是在国家层面上。但它们在2013年的今天也面对着前所未有的挑战,包括限制性的法律和报复。”

 

        “我们需要尽最大努力,重振维也纳宣言的精神,并重新领会它的思想。”皮莱总结说,“我们必须重新关注其无比清晰的宗旨,而当时我们几乎不敢奢望将其实现。它重申了所有人的尊严和权利,并向我们展示如何实现。它提炼了普遍性概念以及司法公正。它展示了前方的道路,我们在某种程度上已沿着这条路前进。然而,我们也常常继续偏离这些目标,这令人难过,也应该受到责备。”

 

中文版:

 

联合国人权事务高级专员纳维•皮莱女士的总结发言

维也纳+20会议

维也纳,2013年6月28日

 

阁下、

各位同事、

女士们、先生们,

 

      谢谢你们两天来的努力。你们的贡献周到而有意义,而且时有煽动性,令人欣慰。

 

      我想再次表达我的感激之情——实际上是我们所有人的感激之情——感谢奥地利政府给了我们这次机会,盘点自1993年在维也纳召开世界大会以来所发生的事件。我还要感谢奥地利政府的热情好客

 

      这次机会来得很及时,以便各国——以及在座所有其他人权行为者——扪心自问是否一直忠实于《维也纳宣言和行动纲领》二十年前提出的期望、愿景和承诺。此外,我们还可以检验我们是否一直忠实于《宣言和纲领》中特别提请注意的特定类别人群,包括妇女、儿童和少数群体。

 

      为完成这一重要文件中所设定的目标,我们能来到这里,努力振兴我们的努力和抱负,做得更多,做得更好,加倍努力地工作,这样的机会极为宝贵。

 

      我们一致认为,虽然实施《维也纳宣言和行动纲领》的全球努力已经取得了大大超出许多人所意识到的成绩,但是其中也有相当大的差距和不足。

 

      于是,这两天我们专注于对未来的展望。新生且时有动荡的挑战不断在我们迅速发展的世界中涌现:无论是气候变化,还是全球恐怖主义活动、现代世界中与移民有关的问题、对言论自由的威胁和对网络空间隐私的侵犯、或影响全球许多国家的不可预见的经济和金融危机。

 

      有时,应对这些挑战的措施会引起很多人权问题,甚至多于这些措施所要解决的问题——反恐和紧缩措施就是两个明显的例子。

 

      保持发展势头,并坚持《宣言和纲领》所制订的路线,对我们至关重要。我们必须拒绝对来之不易的、遵守基本人权标准的法律、标准和机构进行任何妥协。这些法律、标准和机构在过去半个世纪里建立,需要得到巩固、扩大和加强。

 

      我相信,这次会议将被视为重振我们保护和促进人权的承诺。民间社会会议、特别程序会议和“维也纳+20”工作组讨论为知悉我们未来几年的战略提供了宝贵的建议。

 

      同事们和朋友们,

 

      在这些讨论期间,有许多有趣、有抱负且复杂的想法。我无意在此对它们做出评价。这些想法值得严谨的思考和分析。

 

      《宣言和纲领》还远远没有被完全实现。它间接地(或在某些情况下直接地)促成了关键机制和机构的建立或扩大,而这需要我们一致的关注。我所指的是特别程序、人权条约机构、人权事务高级专员办事处、国际刑事法院和普遍定期审议。

 

这些机制虽不完善,但都是令人瞩目的。它们需要我们进一步的支持,以发挥其潜力。我深信,那些淡化其重要性或轻视其表现的人,是目光短浅的。

 

      我希望《宣言和纲领》的重振精神能够被注入目前正在进行的其他一些进程当中,例如:我们正在制定千年发展目标后(2015年后)的议程,一个强大人权方法是必不可少的。

 

      我们还期待着今年十月份举行的关于发展和移徙问题的高级别对话。这对当前和未来数以百万计的移民,及其输送和接收国的经济来说,是十分重要的。

 

       还有“里约+20”峰会的后续行动,多亏了在座许多人(包括我的员工和各人权机制)的努力,人权终于在今天晚些时候被提上了日程。众所周知,气候变化及其对环境的影响将给未来几十年和几个世纪带来巨大的挑战。它对世界上一些最贫穷和最边缘化的社区和民族的影响可能是毁灭性的。需要将人权的做法嵌入我们齐心协力应对这一影响子孙后代的巨大威胁的持续战斗中。

 

      本周在这里举行了的民间社会会议,指出了需要集中我们努力的又一重大发展领域,即商业和人权,特别是跨国公司和金融机构的作用。

 

      我们在本次会议和更广阔的世界中都看到了令人鼓舞的、打击有罪不罚现象的意愿——这不仅仅是针对那些对侵犯公民和政治权利负有责任者,也针对那些对腐败和经济管理不善负有责任者——而这随后导致了影响到许多个人、团体(在某些情况下整个国家)的金融灾难。

 

      我知道,就新的问责法院和新的世界会议已有不少讨论。未来的各种可能性当然存在,但发展这些可能性不应该以牺牲现有的机制为代价,这些机制已经很好地为我们服务,而且可以服务得更好。罗马不是一天建成的,维也纳承诺已不是一天就能履行完的。

 

      大部分的基本工作都已到位。问题主要在于实施、政治意愿和部署足够的人力与财力资源方面。另一个问题是如何在新技术、持续的全球化、新社会行为和其他迅速发展的现象中,运用我们现有的方法和资源。

 

      我们必须让我们的规范、标准和工作方法适应变化的世界,这些变化比以往任何时候都更迅速而复杂,而且后果难以预测。人权可以而且应该是道德和法律的稳定基石,让我们在这激动人心但又骇人听闻、强劲有力、犹如旋风般的变化中,牢牢地扎根于这一文明行为。例如,我们必须确保充分利用社交媒体的潜力,以前所未有的速度和广度,传播人权的价值和消息。

 

      我欢迎本周在此开展的各种讨论中所出现的新思路。

 

      我欢迎大会强调将人权放在与“发展、和平与安全”并列的位置,共同成为三大支柱。

 

      最后,我欢迎大会认可了1993年维也纳所提目标的有效性以及在2013年仍值得为之战斗的观点。在离开这里的时候,我们深知还有很多工作要做,这都是为了更有修养、更加宽容、更加和平的下一代,为了留给他们一个比二十年前维也纳会议上所设想的长远人权愿景还要美好的世界。

 

谢谢!

 

英文版:

Concluding Statement by Ms. Navi Pillay United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights

Vienna + 20 Conference

Vienna, 28 June 2013

 

 

Excellencies, 

Dear colleagues, 

Ladies and gentlemen,

 

Thank you all for your efforts over these past two days. Your contributions have been thoughtful, meaningful and, thankfully, at times provocative.

 

I would like once again to express my gratitude – indeed the gratitude of all of us – to the Austrian Government for giving us this chance to take stock of what has happened since the 1993 World Conference here in Vienna. I also thank the Austrian Government for its warm hospitality.

 

It has been a timely opportunity to ask ourselves if States – and all the other human rights actors represented here – have been faithful to the hopes, the vision and the promises made 20 years ago in the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action. Also, we have been able to test whether we have been faithful to the specific categories of people singled out for special attention in the VDPA, including women, children and minorities.

 

It has been immensely valuable to come here and make an effort to revitalize our efforts and ambitions to do more, do better, work harder, in order to fulfil the goals set down in this important document.

 

We have all agreed that while much more has been achieved than many people realize, there are also considerable gaps and shortfalls in the global effort to implement the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action.

 

So during these two days, we have concentrated on looking forward. New and sometimes tumultuous challenges are constantly emerging in our rapidly evolving world: whether it is climate change, or global terrorist movements; issues related to migration in the modern world; threats to freedom of expression and invasion of privacy in cyberspace; or unforeseen economic and financial crises affecting many countries across the planet.

 

Sometimes the responses to these challenges raise as many, or more, human rights concerns than the problems they set out to address – counter-terrorism and austerity measures being two obvious examples.

 

It is vital for us to maintain momentum, and stick to the path laid down by the VDPA. We must refuse to compromise on the hard-won fundamental human-rights-compliant laws, standards and institutions that have been built up over the past half century. These need to be consolidated, expanded, strengthened.

 

I believe this Conference will be seen as having reinvigorated our commitment to the protection and promotion of human rights. The civil society conference, the meeting of Special Procedures and the Vienna+20 Working Groups’ discussions have delivered valuable recommendations which will inform our strategies for the coming years.

 

Colleagues and friends,

 

There have been many interesting, ambitious and complex ideas raised during these discussions. I do not intend to attempt to evaluate them here. They deserve rigorous reflection and analysis.

 

The VDPA is far from fully implemented. It either indirectly, or in some cases directly, led to the creation or expansion of key mechanisms and institutions which need our undivided attention. I am talking about the Special Procedures, the human rights treaty bodies, the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, the International Criminal Court, and the Universal Periodic Review.

 

While not perfect, these are remarkable mechanisms, all of which need further support if they are to fulfil their potential. I am convinced that those who play down their importance, or disparage their performance, are being short-sighted.

 

I hope that a reinvigorated spirit of the VDPA will be injected into a number of other processes that are currently under way: we are, for example, moving closer to the formulation of the post-MDG, post-2015 agenda, where a robust human rights approach is essential.

 

We also look forward to the High-Level Dialogue on Development and Migration this October. This is an event of great importance to millions of current and future migrants, and the economies of both sending and receiving countries.

 

There is also the follow-up to Rio +20, where human rights made it onto the agenda very late in the day, thanks to the efforts of many people here, including my staff and the human rights mechanisms. We all know that climate change and its impact on the environment will present massive challenges over the coming decades and centuries. Its impact on some of the world’s poorest and most marginalized communities and nations may be devastating. There needs to be a sustained battle to embed a human rights approach in our collective response to this huge threat to future generations.

 

The civil society conference which took place here this week, pointed to another major developing area, and one where we need to concentrate our efforts, namely business and human rights, and in particular the role of transnational corporations and financial institutions.

 

We have seen an encouraging desire, not only in this Conference, but in the wider world, to fight impunity – not for those responsible for abusing civil and political rights only, but also for those responsible for corruption and economic mismanagement which has led to financial disaster for many individuals, groups and in some cases entire nations.

 

I know there has been much discussion of new accountability courts and new World Conferences. These are certainly possibilities for the future, but they should not be developed at the expense of the existing mechanisms, which have served us well and could serve us better. Rome was not built in a day. Nor was the fulfilment of the promise of Vienna.

 

Most of the fundamentals are in place. The problems are more to do with implementation, political will, and the deployment of sufficient human and financial resources. There is also the question of how to use what we already have at our disposal in the light of new technologies, continuing globalization, new social behaviours and other rapidly evolving phenomena.

 

We have to adapt our norms and standards, and our working methods, to a world where changes are occurring in a faster, more complex way than ever before, with consequences that are hard to predict. Human rights can, and should, be the bedrock of moral and legal stability, keeping us firmly rooted in civilized behaviour during this exciting, but also frightening and extremely powerful, whirlwind of change. We must ensure, for example, that the potential of social media to spread human rights values and messages with unprecedented speed and scope is fully exploited.

 

I welcome the refreshing ideas that have surfaced during the various discussions that have been taking place here this week.

 

I welcome the emphasis that has been placed on making human rights’ position as one of the three pillars alongside development, and peace and security, a reality.

 

Above all, I welcome the recognition that the goals set forth in Vienna in 1993 are still valid, and still worth fighting for, in 2013. We leave here knowing we have much to do if we wish to pass on a better world to a next generation that is better educated, more tolerant and less violent than that which finally thrashed out a long-term human rights vision in Vienna 20 years ago.

 

Thank you.

 

 

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