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北京大学法学院人权与人道法研究中心开设课程

 

1、人权与法治(项目必修课,龚刃韧)每周2学时,共36学时,2学分,春季学期开课 

本课程主要从历史和比较法的角度来讲授人权与法治及其相互关系,内容大体上分三个部分。

第一部分讲述人权的历史以及人权概念的主要含义。由于在中国人权概念是舶来品,因此人们往往将人权概念看作是西方社会或西方文化的产物。本课侧重从近现代史的角度阐明人权是人类社会文明高度发展的产物,实现所有人的人权是一个长期的历史过程。

第二部分讲述法治的历史及其内涵。中文中的法治(包括法制依法治国等)有不同的含义,现代中国法学界对此仍有不同的解释。课程主要向学生阐明现代文明社会的法治(rule of law)是从中世纪英国发展起来的一种制度和价值体系,并从比较法的角度阐明法治原则在当代各国宪法制度中的发展,其中包括法治与宪政的关系。

第三部分讲述人权与法治的关系。虽然在现代各国宪法中都有公民权利条款,但实际上在许多国家人权并没有能得到有效的保障,其中一个重要原因就在于缺乏法治。在历史上,法治的主要作用是限制王权,而并不当然引申出人权的保护。但在现代社会法治却已成为保障人权最重要的基础。本课程重点讨论如何建立法治社会、人权的司法保障以及国际人权公约和宪法权利的实现途径等问题。在授课方式上,采取讲授与讨论相结合的方法。

 

2、国际人权保护机制(项目必修课,白桂梅)每周2学时,共36学时,2学分,春季学期开课 

本课程从2001年开始在法学院为法学硕士研究生开设。课程目的是使学生了解人权国际保护的机制。课程分为四个部分:

第一部分主要讨论联合国人权保护机构和程序,例如原人权委员会、现人权理事会及其1235程序、1503程序。

第二部分是关于条约机构及其程序,以人权事务委员会和消除对妇女歧视委员会为主。为更好地理解这些程序,课程将就一些经典案例进行讨论。

第三部分是关于区域人权保护机制,涉及欧洲人权法院、美洲人权委员会和美洲人权法院以及非洲人权和民族权委员会。由于亚洲尚不存在任何类似机制,本课程仅对亚洲的现状加以分析并探讨建立人权保护机制的可能性问题。

第四部分是关于国际刑事法庭和国际刑事法院(ICC)的情况,关于前南国际刑事法庭的情况要通过案例来加以分析和讨论,关于ICC仅对其中与人权保护有直接关系的部分进行讨论。、

 

3、国际人道法(项目选修课,李红云)每周2学时,共36学时,2学分,秋季学期开课 

本课程目前没有教材,授课过程中逐渐完成教材的编写。本课程拟分为如下部分:

一、国际人道法的历史发展;

二、国际人道法的主要内容及其基本原则;

三、国际人道法的主要法律问题:国际性与非国际性武装冲突问题、“马尔顿条款”原则、人道原则与“军事需要”理论等;

四、国际人道法的特点;

五、国际人道法与国际人权法;

六、国际人道法与中国。

本课程采用讲授与课堂讨论相结合的方式进行。主要目的是让学生了解人道法的内容及其与国际人权法的关系,并结合中国的情况,深入讨论其中的法律问题。

 

4、人权保护专题讲座 (项目必修课,多位老师)每周2学时,共36学时,2学分,秋季学期开课 

本课程将由陈瑞华、沈岿、贾俊玲等多位法学院人权中心的老师连同外请专家、学者、实务界人士分别讲授刑事程序与禁止酷刑中的人权问题,行政法与人权保护、劳工权利保护、妇女权利、儿童权利、种族歧视问题以及国际难民保护等人权保护的专门领域。

 

5、国际人权宪章(项目必修课,由访问教授讲授,英文授课)每周2学时,共36学时,2学分,春季学期开课 

本课程以《世界人权宣言》、《公民及政治权利国际公约》和《经济社会文化权利国际公约》为视角。这些文件中的条款时常被联合国系统随后采用的其他机制解释和补充。同时,促进和保护人权专门委员会特派员所提交的范围广泛的研究和报告也对其有所推进。 

 

讲授重点集中在以下方面:平等地享有全部人权,反对歧视;通过专门的措施消除歧视从而实现平等权、自决权; 个人的完整与安全;司法公正,特别是对犯罪分子的公正;迁徙和结社自由;包括人权教育在内的受教育权;以健康保障为重点的社会权利;经济权利和获得可执行的国家赔偿的权利。教学重点会依照每年授课教师的专业方向而有所不同。 

本课程将会探讨人权的普遍性,人权的平等价值,人权的不可分割性和相互依赖性,历史、文化和区域特性的可能性。这些问题将会涉及到1993年的《维也纳宣言和行动纲领》。 

为了更好地进行比较,学生将要评价非洲、美洲和欧洲的区域人权保护机制,并从监督机制的视角比较判例法体制,特别是美洲国家间人权法院和欧洲人权法院。

 

6、区域人权保护机制(项目选修课,由访问教授讲授,英文授课)每周2学时,共36学时,2学分,秋季学期开课

本课程重点讲授非洲、美洲和欧洲区域组织所采取的人权保护机制。这些区域组织分别是非洲联盟、美洲国家组织、欧洲委员会和欧洲安全与合作组织。本课程将会从监督机制的视角关注判例法中标准的阐释和应用,特别是美洲国家间人权法院、欧洲人权法院及非洲人权和民族权委员会。

对不同区域的人权保护机制所阐释的标准之间,以及它们与国际人权保护机制标准进行比较,是一项非常值得的工作。实行区域 人权保护的成效和额外的价值在哪里? 在本课程学习过程中,学生要思考在亚洲国家间、最终在环太平洋国家间建立区域或次区域组织的可行性和必要性(如果有必要的话),并给出尝试性的答案。

 

7、少数者权利(项目选修课,由访问教授讲授,英文授课)每周2学时,共36学时,2学分,秋季学期开课

本课程以《世界人权宣言》第一条“人皆生而自由;在尊严及权利上均各平等”和第二条关于禁止因少数者的“身分”而对其歧视的规定为出发点。当发生歧视致使平等权被剥夺时,联合国和联合国科教文组织的一系列人权保护机制会提供旨在使之公正的专门措施。这些措施适用于公民及政治权利、经济社会文化权利保障,并提供各个机制和国家惯例的具体案例。专门措施被认为是优惠待遇和积极行动,但还应该明确这些并不意味着特殊权利或个别权利。

另外,学生将要思考少数者权利中“少数者”的定义,以及个人和群体权利的问题。此外,尊重少数者权利与防止种族间暴力冲突的关系也值得分析。本课程将会基于国际劳工组织公约169号和联合国关于土著人民权利宣言草案探讨土著民族的权利问题。课程还将研究委任托管权和联合国土著特别机构最近的永久论坛的相关活动。

 

8、商业与人权(项目选修课,由访问教授讲授,英文授课)每周2学时,共36学时,2学分,春季学期开课

本课程将重点讨论商业运行对人权的影响。将会涉及童工、妇女工作权利、工作条件正当要求的权利、广告牵涉的人权保护、跨国公司和人权保护的影响力等内容。课程还将探讨企业社会责任(CSR)以及国内外商业运作中的人权保护规则。

 

 

 

Curriculum of the Human Rights Master Program

 

 

1. Human Rights and the Rule of Law (compulsory, by Prof. Gong Renren), 2 hours per week and 36 hours in total, 2 credits, given in spring semester
 

This course discusses the topics on human rights, the rule of law, and their relationships, from historical and comparative law points of view. Classes can generally be put into three parts. The first part involves detailed examination of the origin and history of human rights, and the actual meaning of human rights. As in China the concept of "human rights" is somewhat "transplanted" from Western world, and it is always regarded by most people as the outcome of Western society or Western culture. Lectures focus on clarifying, from the modern history point of view, that human rights is the outcome of highly civilized human society,and to realize those rights there is still a long way to go. The second part of the course centers on the origin, history and meaning of the rule of law. The "rule of law" in Chinese, which is considered as something similar to legal system, or "rule by law", is different from actual and classic definition of rule of law. In addition, the explanations of rule of law in modern academic circles still differ from each other. Lectures will be given to clarify the actual meaning of rule of law from a historical point of view, according to which the rule of law is a kind of institution or value system from Britain in the medieval ages. The course also involves descriptions on the development of the rule of law principle in modern constitutional law systems, including relationship between rule of law and constitutionalism. The third part mainly concerns the relationship between human rights and the rule of law. Although civil rights articles are stipulated in constitutional law of many countries, human rights are not effectively implemented in many cases. One of the most important reasons is the absence of rule of law in some countries. At the very beginning, the rule of law aims to restrict the power of the king, but not necessarily educe the protection of human rights. While in modern society, the rule of law has already become an important basis for human rights protection. This part mainly concerns issues like the establishment of a society in which rule of law overrun, judicial protection of human rights, and also the implementation of international human rights conventions and constitutional rights. The whole course proceeds in forms of both lecture and discussion.

 

2. International Mechanisms for Human Rights Protection (compulsory, by Prof. Bai Guimei), 2 hours per week, 36 hours in total, 2 credits, given in spring semester

 

The course has been set for LL.M. students since the year 2001, and now it is the second time to have it in the curriulum. This course aims to offer guidance for students to understand the international human rights monitoring mechanisms. Classes can be classified into 4 parts: The first part focuses on charter-based organs in United Nation and relative procedures, such as the 1235 and 1503 procedures of Human Rights Commission. The second part centers on the treaty-based organs and relative procedures, Human Rights Committee and Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women are set as examples. The third part is concentrated on discussions of regional human rights monitoring mechanism, including European Court of Human Rights, the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, Inter-American Court of Human Rights and African Commission on Human and People's Rights. Because in Asia, until recently, there is no similar monitoring mechanism, the lecturer confines remarks to conceiving and analyzing the possibility of setting up human rights monitoring mechanism according to present situation in Asia. The fourth part involves lectures on the International Criminal Tribunal, and also the International Criminal Court in function. Situations of International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia will be analyzed in forms of case study, and the discussion on ICC will be confined to the part that relates to human rights protection.

 

3. International Humanitarian Law (optional, by Associate Prof. Li Hongyun), 2 hours per week, 36 hours in total, 2 credits, given in fall semester

 

Until recently there is no specific textbook for this course, and a textbook will be gradually completed with process of the course. The course is arranged into the following 6 parts: 1) Historical development of international humanitarian law; 2) The basic principles and main content of humanitarian law; 3) Important legal issues in humanitarian law: international and non-international armed conflict, humanitarian principle, and "military necessity" theory, etc. 4) The features of international humanitarian law; 5) Humanitarian law and international human rights law; 6) International humanitarian law and China. This course proceeds in forms of lecture and discussion. This course aims to offer guidance for students to understand the content of humanitarian law and its relationship with international human rights law; it will also give in-depth discussion of related legal issues with situations in China.

 

4. Series of Lectures in Human Rights Protection (compulsory, multi-lecturers), 2 hours per week, 36 hours' class in total, given in fall semester
 

This course involves lectures given by Professors Chen Ruihua, Shen Kui, Jia Junlin and other teachers at the center, together with many experts and scholars invited, and the lectures concern many issues such as criminal procedure, the human rights issues in prohibition of torture, administrative law and human rights protection, protection of labor's rights, women's rights, children's rights, racial discrimination issues, protection of international refugees, etc.

 

5. Civil and Political Rights; Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (compulsory, by foreign visiting professor, in English), 2 hours per week, 36 hours' class in total, given in spring semester

 

This course will have a point of departure in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the two International Covenants on Civil and Political Rights and on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. The provisions in these texts can often be explained or supplemented by other instruments subsequently adopted within the UN system, as well as various studies and reports submitted by Special Rapporteurs of the Sub-Commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights and the Commission on Human Rights. As to some of the major content categories, emphasis should be placed on equal enjoyment of all human rights and non-discrimination in that enjoyment; special measures for eliminating discrimination and thus achieving equal rights, the right of peoples to self-determination; the integrity and security of the individual person; the administration of justice and in particular of criminal justice; the freedoms of movement and association; the right to education including human rights education; social rights with a focus on the right to health; economic rights; and the availability of national remedies for implementation purposes. The placement of the emphasis may vary from year to year depending on the specializations of the teacher(s) involved.

 

Furthermore, the course should look into the universality of human rights, the equal value of all human rights, and the indivisibility and inter-dependence of all human rights, as well as the possibility of historical or cultural/regional particularities. On these issues, reference will be made to the 1993 Vienna Declaration and the accompanying Action Plan. For comparative purposes, student participants should be invited to examine human rights instruments adopted by regional organizations in Africa, the Americas and Europe as well as the case-law from the respective monitoring institutions, notably the Inter-American and the European Courts of Human Rights.

 

6. Regional Systems for Human Rights Protection (optional, by foreign visiting professor, in English), 2 hours per week, 36 hours' class in total, given in fall semester

 

This course will focus on human rights instruments adopted by regional organizations in Africa, the Americas and Europe, that is the African Union,, the Organization of American States, the Council of Europe, and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. In addition the standards in the regional instruments, the course will take a close look at the interpretation and application of the standards in the case-law from the respective monitoring institutions, notably the Inter-American and the European Courts of Human Rights and the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights.

 

As to the contents of the regional instruments, it is worthwhile to compare the standards set forth between the different regions, as well as to compare the regional standards with the international ones. What is the gain or additional value of a regional approach? In this context, a relevant question which student participants in this course should be asked to think about and provide tentative answers to is the feasibility of and need (if any) for a regional and/or sub-regional organization(s) for Asian States and eventually Pacific States.

 

7. Minority Rights (optional, by foreign visiting professor, in English), 2 hours per week, 36 hours' class in total, given in fall semester

 

The point of departure for this course should be article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, we are all equal in dignity and rights, and article 2 about the prohibition of discrimination on the basis of a membership in a minority group. When discrimination takes place nevertheless and equal rights have not been achieved, a series of UN and UNESCO human rights instruments provide for special measures which are intended to set the picture straight. These measures are available for civil, cultural, economic, political and social rights, and concrete examples from the instruments and national practices should be provided. The special measures are also known as preferential treatment or affirmative action, but it should be made clear that they do not amount to special or separate rights.

 

In addition, student participants should be invited to reflect on the definition of the term 'minority' for the purposes of minority rights. The question of individual and group rights will also arise. Furthermore, the relationship between respect for minority rights and the prevention of violent ethnic conflicts deserves to be examined. Also the course should look at the rights of indigenous peoples, primarily as set forth in ILO Convention No. 169 and provisionally in the pending UN draft declaration on the rights of indigenous peoples. The mandates and relevant activities of indigenous-specific UN institutions, most recently the Permanent Forum, should be also studied.

 

8. Business and Human Rights (optional, by foreign visiting professor, in English), 2 hours per week, 36 hours' class in total, given in spring semester

 

This course will mainly discuss the operation of business and its influence on human rights. The specific topics will include the child labor, women's right to work, right to a decent work condition, the human rights dimension of advertisements, the power of TNCs and the protection of human rights. The course will then explore into the social responsibility of cooperation and the domestic and international regulations on the operation of business in terms of protecting human rights.

 

 

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